Transistors were invented on the basis ofdeep research on semiconductor materials. A semiconductor is a material that iselectrically conductive between a metal and an insulator, typically a solidsuch as germanium and silicon. Changes in the content of impurities andexternal conditions (such as temperature, light, etc.) can cause large changesin electrical conductivity. Unidirectional conductivity between semiconductormaterials, or where semiconductors and certain metallic materials are incontact.
In 1928, it was proposed to usesemiconductor materials to make transistors with similar functions to tubes. Onthe one hand, there is still lack of solid physics knowledge in the study ofsemiconductor electronic properties; on the other hand, because semiconductormaterials are chaotic in the microstructure, there is no regularity, andelectronic properties are also highly accidental. Therefore, transistors havenot been successfully developed.api5l grade b
With the development of physics and theurgent need for electronic components with improved performance incommunication systems, after the Second World War, some of the technicians atBell Labs formed a group to jointly conduct semiconductors research. The leaderof the group is Schockley, who began research on basic theories of solidphysics, metallography, electronics, etc. since 1936; he studied semiconductortheory at the Bell Institute since 1945, and in 1949 he proposed PN theory.
The group member Badin was a universityprofessor and served as director of the Bell Institute, studying semiconductortheory. In 1947, he proposed the theory of crystallographic surfaces. Anothermember of the group, Bradton, is an experimental physicist who conducted experimentalresearch on the surface of semiconductors and developed technologies related tothe refinement and growth of semiconductor single crystals. In 1948, Badin andBrighton collaborated to develop the first point contact transistor. Soon, theBell Institute developed the first junction transistor.
Due to the successfuldevelopment of the transistor, they shared the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physicstogether. The transistor was originally made of germanium crystals. Later, dueto the development of silicon purification and processing technology, silicontransistors replaced germanium transistors. The transistor has the advantagesof small size, light weight, reliable performance and power saving. The tubeused before the transistor can only be used for thousands to tens of thousandsof hours, and the life of the transistor is several hundred times higher thanthat of the tube. Due to the many unparalleled advantages of transistors, inthe late 1950s and early 2000s, transistors gradually replaced tubes, makingthe electronics industry a new era of history.check here
Transistors are considered to be one of thegreatest inventions in modern history, and can be compared in importance toinventions such as printing, cars and telephones. Transistors are actually thekey active components of all modern appliances. The importance of transistorsin today's society is primarily due to the ability of transistors to bemass-produced using highly automated processes, which can incredibly achieveextremely low unit costs. Especially after the appearance of the PN, it openedup a new are of electrics and leaded an revolution of electric technology.