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心理学与生活

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1205-心理学与生活-小篱喵...

1205-心理学与生活-小篱喵 32页

今天学到了几个概念。

观察者偏见,期望效应和安慰剂效应。

在看的过程中,也不断在想自己的经历。

比如期望效应与自证预言。

越发觉得心理学很好玩,继续坚持。

1205-心理学与生活-小篱喵 32页

今天学到了几个概念。

观察者偏见,期望效应和安慰剂效应。

在看的过程中,也不断在想自己的经历。

比如期望效应与自证预言。

越发觉得心理学很好玩,继续坚持。

无心

共情

我该如何感受你的悲伤孤独

我该如何安慰你的心灵荒芜

我该如何拯救你,我的朋友

我该如何感受你的悲伤孤独

我该如何安慰你的心灵荒芜

我该如何拯救你,我的朋友


远方无垠

你为什么爱生气?

微信公众号:远方无垠


      中国人的情绪变化非常大


人类很容易有情绪起伏,这是因为外在的环境以及我们自己的内心感受随时都在进行变化而导致的。但是要说世界上哪个国家的人情绪起伏是最大的,那么当属中国人,换句话说就是中国人最爱生气。基本上我们只要是感觉有点不对劲就很难忍受,必须要发泄情绪。也正是因为如此,所以中国人是最注重修身养性这件事情的。


别人相信“眼见为实”,但是中国人不一样。因为我们总会觉得只要自己相信了,就会上当受骗。比如我们买一件商品,如果这件商品是出现在专卖店里,有的人就会觉得这肯定是正品...



微信公众号:远方无垠





      中国人的情绪变化非常大


人类很容易有情绪起伏,这是因为外在的环境以及我们自己的内心感受随时都在进行变化而导致的。但是要说世界上哪个国家的人情绪起伏是最大的,那么当属中国人,换句话说就是中国人最爱生气。基本上我们只要是感觉有点不对劲就很难忍受,必须要发泄情绪。也正是因为如此,所以中国人是最注重修身养性这件事情的。

 

别人相信“眼见为实”,但是中国人不一样。因为我们总会觉得只要自己相信了,就会上当受骗。比如我们买一件商品,如果这件商品是出现在专卖店里,有的人就会觉得这肯定是正品;但如果这件商品出现在街边小店里,有的人就会对这件商品的真伪持一番怀疑的态度,会反复的查看包装、制作细节等,找到足够的“证据”证明商品不是假货之后才会考虑购买。所以很多人都在批评中国人,觉得中国人信任感太低了。之所以会有这样的情况,是因为有的人疑心比较重导致的。

 

但是,假如你无条件的去相信一个人,也的确欠妥当。甚至是有点轻率的,因为没有顾及到自己的安危。比如现在新闻媒体经常报道的人口拐卖和欺诈新闻,这些人就是因为太过于相信别人了。

 

也正是因为中国人的疑心很重,所以我们在做一些事情的时候通常一开始的时候都是很慢的。经常有人说中国人做事效率实在是太低了。但其实这样的说法是不准确的。仔细看看西方国家,他们的快和慢差不多是一个概念。虽然他们在一开始的时候看起来速度很快,但是到后面的时候就很慢。

 

比如买一台车,中国人在买之前会仔细对比品牌,看价格,看排量,看准了之后就去买,最快可能当天就能提车。但是西方人相反,他们下决定很快,但是等到提车可能得是几个月之后了。所以,中国人是属于先慢后快,西方人是属于先快后慢,总的时间长度来看,中国人的效率还会更高一些。

 

说中国人疑心重,从另外一个角度来看,也说明中国人的警觉性是非常高的,其中一个表现就是比较敏感。别人说话的时候明明没有这个意思,但是他偏偏能够听出很多层意思。比如你的朋友跟你聊起昨天跟某某吃饭的时候对方没有主动买单,你会觉得朋友是不是在提醒你这顿饭要记得买单。

 

所以,基本上每一句对话都会引起人们产生不同的情绪感受,只是很多时候我们没有关注到这一点。我们在说话行事的时候都应该小心翼翼,言语之间不能由着自己的性子想说什么就说什么。因为我们只要是发出信息,别人经过一番解读,可能就会产生不同的感受,最终对发出信息的人产生很大的影响。



 

中国人很容易发脾气


在中国人的文化当中有四个字是非常经典的——能屈能伸。中国人的情绪起伏大是因为我们在这方面的弹性很大。比如说当我们发现情况不利于自己的时候就非常能忍;但是当发现形势有好转,又会翘起尾巴觉得自己很了不起了。但是西方人不像中国人这样有很大的情绪变化,也完全谈不上能屈能伸。

 

西方人做任何事情都是属于“照规矩办事”,如何做事,如何说话都像是按照一种标准模式来进行的。但中国人不是这样的。比如一群徒弟跟着师傅学艺,有的人开始的时候师傅说什么都言听计从,但是慢慢的当发现自己的手艺经常受人夸赞,有一定的名气了,就开始觉得自己了不起了,对师傅的话也不听从了,开始学会“端架子”了。

 

有些外资企业在招聘中国人的时候会觉得带领中国人一起工作是一个困难的事情,主要就是因为有些中国人喜欢“端架子”。如果这个人是处在一个相对弱势的情境之下,人家说什么都会乖乖听从。但是当自己有一点能力的时候就会开始“端架子”。中国人的文化里面很强调“守本分”,这是因为有的中国人非常不守本分,略微有一点成绩的时候就开始飘起来了,觉得:反正你也不能把我怎么样。比如在一个家庭当中孩子在没什么能耐的时候会很听父母的话,因为这个时候他是依附着父母生活的。等到孩子有点成就了,就会觉得父母其实混的很烂,可能就会开始给父母脸色看。也因为这样,中国人才会那么关注伦理这件事情,要是没有伦理的话,父母斗不过孩子,孩子就飘飘然了。




中国人总会认为别人对自己不公平


西方人心里公平的意思是:大家都一样;中国人心里的公平是:我是特殊的。比如老板出去的时候通常都会找几个人作陪,老板走在中间或者前面,说话声音是最大的,这是为了显示自己的与众不同。这也是在对外发出一个信号:我不是一般人,你别惹我,否则我会生气的。所以,跟西方人说话你直接听内容就行,跟中国人说话不要听内容,他们只是在发出上面说到的信息而已。

 

一个人说话时低声下气,可能是他目前的形势不如人,挺不起腰杆;有的人说话恨不得拿个大喇叭,那基本上是他正得意的时候。中国人可以大声说话,也可以小声说话,认真了解过这其中的奥妙,好好应用,可以用来保护自己。




中国人的自尊心很强


一些学者提倡老师和父母在教育孩子的时候需要多多鼓励和称赞。这是因为人是应该自尊自爱的,一个人只有拥有自尊才能够得到别人给予的尊重。而自尊本身也是独立人格的一部分,没有自尊的人算不得是一个完人、健康的人。可是,人的自尊心是有限度的,一个人的自尊心如果太强了,这会成为他的弱点。因为自尊心太强的人很难认清自己的优点和缺点,害怕失败,怕自己比别人差,总是希望得到别人的认可,他们永远把“面子”放在第一位。

 

有些中国人的自尊心太强,他们平时自诩天不怕地不怕,但是内心里却唯独害怕被人看不起。所以不管遇到什么难处,他们始终都是憋在心里。承认钱很重要谁都能做到,但是没钱的时候他可能又会觉得钱都是粪土。比如当他们看到一个富人的时候,心里会想:“有几个臭钱而已,拽什么!”这是在自欺欺人。这种行为或许可以激励他去好好工作挣钱,但是也可能让他心生“嫉妒”,最后发展到成为窃贼。所以,我们应该关照自己的内心世界,保有适度的自尊心。




中国人生气时不讲道理


中国人是世界上最讲道理的人了,但是必须要说的是中国人生气的时候是完全不讲道理的。比如一个平常很讲道理的人,有一天突然蛮不讲理,如果有人问他:“你怎么不讲理?”他可能会回答说:“你把我气成这个样子,我还跟你讲理?”意思就是说,我不生气的时候就是讲理的,但是我生气了就不讲理了。

 

有些人由于在生活当中长期的伪装自己、压抑自己,所以几乎大多数的时间他都是在生气,因此他总是一副不讲理的样子。这也是很多人一辈子都没有弄明白的事情。如果他的心情好,那么一切都好商量;但是他的心情不好,那么即便是大罗神仙来了也没用。

 

所以,有些聪明的人在刚见面的时候大多是不直接谈正经事的,彼此会寒暄一阵,说些漂亮话。这是为什么?其实这属于情绪管理。因为在寒暄的过程当中可以让对方的情绪稳定下来,然后接下来再谈工作就好商量了。

 

如果见面的时候单刀直入的跟人谈工作,多半会引起别人情绪上的不适感。这一点上西方人是恰好相反。西方人是以工作为导向的,一见面就跟你谈工作;但是很多中国人一见面是不谈正事的,因为刚见面这一段时间谈工作是无效的,对方根本不愿意听。比如你碰到一个人,一见面就问人家某个事办好了没有,他嘴里会说快了、快了,但是他的心里可能会想:催什么催,你怎么不自己做?我忙着呢!所以,不要一见面就跟人谈工作,这基本上起不到作用。

 

著名国学大师曾仕强老先生有一句话说的很精准:中国人的管理是“修己安人”。修己是指我们需要稳定自己的情绪,但是在一些家庭中父母总是情绪不稳定,动不动就吵架,如此一来孩子的情绪也跟着不稳定。安人就是让对方的情绪能够稳定下来,别人稳定了,大家也就都稳定了,凡事也就好商量了,事情也好办了。


渡仁心理咨询
#亲密关系# 昨天上了亲密关系...

#亲密关系#

昨天上了亲密关系的课过后,其实头一直是懵的,感觉有很多知识和能量需要吸收,

听到了很多故事,也看到了很多在亲密关系中的需要,很多人的分享让我受益颇丰,也让我在反思自己在亲密关系中的相处。

今早在做课程回顾分享的时候,依旧让我记忆犹新和感动的是有个学员的分享,离别不可怕,永久的遗憾才可怕。

#亲密关系#

昨天上了亲密关系的课过后,其实头一直是懵的,感觉有很多知识和能量需要吸收,

听到了很多故事,也看到了很多在亲密关系中的需要,很多人的分享让我受益颇丰,也让我在反思自己在亲密关系中的相处。

今早在做课程回顾分享的时候,依旧让我记忆犹新和感动的是有个学员的分享,离别不可怕,永久的遗憾才可怕。

渡仁心理咨询
亲密关系群里,天天都有这种猝不...

亲密关系群里,
天天都有这种猝不及防的情话😂😂
明天就开班了,接下来就是5天,一个多月的相处,大家恐怕有点兴奋👏🏻

亲密关系群里,
天天都有这种猝不及防的情话😂😂
明天就开班了,接下来就是5天,一个多月的相处,大家恐怕有点兴奋👏🏻

Serenity

【Psychology and Life】Chapter 12 — Main Points

* All the following abstractions are excerpted from <Psychology and Life>, Richard J. Gerrig & Philip G. Zimbardo, 19th edition


Chapter 12 — Emotion, Stress, and Health. 


— Emotions

  • Emotions are complex patterns of changes made up of physiological arousal, cognitive appraisal...

* All the following abstractions are excerpted from <Psychology and Life>, Richard J. Gerrig & Philip G. Zimbardo, 19th edition


Chapter 12 — Emotion, Stress, and Health. 


— Emotions

  • Emotions are complex patterns of changes made up of physiological arousal, cognitive appraisal, and behavioral and expressive reactions.

  • As a product of evolution, all humans may share a basic set of emotional responses.

  • Cultures, however, vary in their rules of appropriateness for displaying emotions.

  • Classic theories emphasize different parts of emotional response, such as peripheral bodily reactions or central neural processes.

  • More contemporary theories emphasize the appraisal of arousal.

  • Moods and emotions effect information processing and decision making.

  • Subjective well-being is influenced by both genetics and life experiences.


— Stress of Living

  • Stress can arise from negative or positive events. At the root of most stress are change and the need to adapt to environmental, biological, physical, and social demands.

  • Physiological stress reactions are regulated by the hypothalamus and a complex interaction of the hormonal and nervous systems.

  • Depending on the type of stressor and its effect over time, stress can be a mild disruption or lead to health-threatening reactions.

  • Cognitive appraisal is a primary moderator variable of stress. 

  • Coping strategies either focus on problems (taking direct actions) or attempt to regulate emotions (indirect or avoidant).

  • Cognitive reappraisal and restructuring can be used to cope with stress.

  • Social support is a also a significant stress moderator, as long as it is appropriate to the circumstances.

  • Stress can lead to positive changes such as posttraumatic growth.


— Health Psychology

  • Health Psychology is devoted to treatment and prevention of illness.

  • The biopsychosocial model of health and illness looks at the connections among physical, emotional, and environmental factors in illness.

  • Illness prevention focuses on lifestyle factors such as smoking and AIDS-risk behaviors.

  • Psychological factors influence immune function.

  • Psychosocial treatment of illness adds another dimension to patient treatment.

  • Individuals who are characterized by Type A (especially hostile), Type B, and optimistic behavior patterns will experience different likelihoods of illness.

  • Health-care providers are at risk for burnout, which can be minimized by appropriate situational changes in their helping environment.


Serenity

【Psychology and Life】Chapter 11 — Main Points

* All the following abstractions are excerpted from <Psychology and Life>, Richard J. Gerrig & Philip G. Zimbardo, 19th edition


Chapter 11 — Motivation.


— Understanding Motivation

  • Motivation is a dynamic concept used to describe the processes directing behavior.

  • Motivational analysis...

* All the following abstractions are excerpted from <Psychology and Life>, Richard J. Gerrig & Philip G. Zimbardo, 19th edition


Chapter 11 — Motivation.


— Understanding Motivation

  • Motivation is a dynamic concept used to describe the processes directing behavior.

  • Motivational analysis helps explain how biological and behavioral processes are related and why people pursue goals despite obstacles and adversity.

  • Drive theory conceptualizes motivation as tension reduction. 

  • People are also motivated by incentives, external stimuli that are not related to physiological needs.

  • Instinct theory suggests that motivation often relies on innate stereotypical responses.

  • Social and cognitive psychologists emphasize the individual's perception of, interpretation of, and reaction to a situation.

  • Abraham Maslow suggested that human needs can be organized hierarchically.

  • Although real human motivation is more complex, Maslow's theory provides a useful framework for summarizing motivational forces.


— Eating

  • The body has a number of mechanisms to regulate the initiation and cessation of eating.

  • Cultural norms have an impact on what and how much people eat.

  • If individuals become restrained eaters, their diets may result in weight gain rather than weight loss.

  • Eating disorders are life-threatening illnesses that may arise from genetic factors, misperceptions of body image and cultural pressures.


— Sexual Behaviors

  • From an evolutionary perspective, sex is the mechanism for producing offspring.

  • In animals, the sex drive is largely controlled by hormones.

  • The work of Masters and Johnson provided the first hard data on the sexual response cycles of men and women.

  • Evolutionary psychologists suggest that much of human sexual behavior reflects different mating strategies for men and women.

  • Sexual scripts define culturally appropriate forms of sexual behavior.

  • Homosexuality and heterosexuality are determined both by genetics and personal and social environments.


— Motivation for Personal Achievement

  • People have varying needs for achievement. Motivation for achievement is influenced by how people interpret success and failure.

  • Two attributional styles, optimism and pessimism, lead to different attitudes toward achievement and influence motivation.

  • Organizational psychologists study human motivation in work settings.


Serenity

【Psychology and Life】Chapter 10 — Main Points

* All the following abstractions are excerpted from <Psychology and Life>, Richard J. Gerrig & Philip G. Zimbardo, 19th edition


Chapter 10 — Human Development Across The Life Span.


— Studying Development

  • Researchers collect normative, longitudinal, and cross-sectional data to document...

* All the following abstractions are excerpted from <Psychology and Life>, Richard J. Gerrig & Philip G. Zimbardo, 19th edition


Chapter 10 — Human Development Across The Life Span.


— Studying Development

  • Researchers collect normative, longitudinal, and cross-sectional data to document change.


— Physical Development across the Life Span

  • Environmental factors can affect physical development while a child is still in the womb.

  • Newborns and infants possess a remarkable range of capabilities: They are prewired for survival.

  • Through puberty, adolescents achieve sexual maturity.

  • Some physical changes in late adulthood are consequences of disuse, not inevitable deterioration.


— Cognitive Development across the Life Span

  • Piaget's key ideas about cognitive development include development of schemes, assimilation, accommodation, and the four-stage theory of discontinuous development. The four stages are sensorimotor, pre operational, concrete operational, and formal operational.

  • Many of Piaget's theories are now being altered by ingenious research paradigms that reveal infants and young children to be more competent than Piaget had thought.

  • Researchers suggest that children develop foundational theories that change over time.

  • Cross-cultural research has questioned the universality of cognitive developmental theories.

  • Age-related declines in cognitive functioning are typically evident in only some abilities.


— Acquiring Language

  • Many researchers believe that humans have an inborn language-making capacity. Even so, interactions with adult speakers is an essential part of the language acquisition process.

  • Like scientists, children develop hypotheses about the meanings and grammar of their language. These hypotheses are often constrained by innate principles.


— Social Development across the Life Span

  • Social development takes place in a particular cultural context.

  • Erik Erikson conceptualized the life span as a series of crises with which individuals must cope.

  • Children begin the process of social development with different temperaments.

  • Socialization begins with an infant's attachment to a caregiver.

  • Failure to make this attachment leads to numerous physical and psychological problems.

  • Adolescents must develop a personal identity by forming comfortable social relationships with parents and peers.

  • The central concerns of adulthood are organized around the needs of intimacy and generatively.

  • People become less socially active as they grow older because they selectively maintain only those relationships that matter most to them emotionally.

  • People assess their lives, in part, by their ability to contribute positively to the lives of others.


— Sex and Gender Differences

  • Research has revealed biologically based sex differences between the brains of men and women.

  • Children's gender stereotypes are most rigid between ages 5 and 7.

  • Beginning at birth, parents and peers help bring about the socialization of gender roles.


— Moral Development

  • Kohlberg defined stages of moral development.

  • Subsequent research has evaluated gender and cultural differences in moral reasoning.


— Learning to Age Successfully

  • Successful cognitive aging can be defined as people optimizing their functioning in select domains that are of highest priority to them and compensating for losses by using substitute behaviors.


Serenity

【Psychology and Life】Chapter 09 — Main Points

* All the following abstractions are excerpted from <Psychology and Life>, Richard J. Gerrig & Philip G. Zimbardo, 19th edition


Chapter 09 — Intelligence and Intelligence Assessment. 


— What Is Assessment?

  • Psychological assessment has a long history, beginning in ancient China...

* All the following abstractions are excerpted from <Psychology and Life>, Richard J. Gerrig & Philip G. Zimbardo, 19th edition


Chapter 09 — Intelligence and Intelligence Assessment. 


— What Is Assessment?

  • Psychological assessment has a long history, beginning in ancient China. Many important contributions were made by Sir Francis Galton.

  • A useful assessment tool must be reliable, valid, and standardized. A reliable measure gives consistent results. A valid measure assesses the attributes for which the test was designed.

  • A standardized test is always administered and scored in the same way; norms allow a person's score to be compared with the averages of others of the same age, sex, and culture.


— Intelligence Assessment

  • Binet began the tradition of objective intelligence testing in France in the early 1900s. Scores were give in terms of mental ages and were meant to represent children's current level of functioning.

  • In the United States, Terman created the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and popularized the concept of IQ.

  • Wechsler designed intelligence tests for adults, children, and preschoolers.

  • The definitions of both intellectual disability and giftedness focus both on IQ scores and day-to-day performance.


— Theories of Intelligence

  • Psychometric analyses of IQ suggest that several basic abilities, such as fluid and crystallized aspects of intelligence, contribute to IQ scores.

  • Contemporary theories conceive of and measure intelligence very broadly by considering the skills and insights role use to solve the types of problems they encounter.

  • Sternberg differentiates analytical, creative, and practical aspects of intelligence.

  • Gardner identifies eight types of intelligence that both include and go beyond the types of intelligence assessed by standard IQ measures. Recent research has focused on emotional intelligence.


— The Politics of Intelligence

  • Almost from the outset, intelligence tests have been used to make negative claims about ethnic and racial groups.

  • Because of the reasonably high heritability of IQ, some researchers have attributed the lower scores of some racial and cultural groups to innate inferiority.

  • Environmental disadvantages and stereotype threat appear to explain the lower scores of certain groups. Research shows that group differences can be affected through environmental interventions.


— Creativity

  • Creativity is often assessed using tests of divergent and convergent thinking.

  • Exceptionally creative people take risks, prepare, and are highly motivated.

  • Although there is an association between creativity and some forms of mental illness, a causal link has not been established.


— Assessment and Society

  • Though often useful for prediction and as an indication of current performance, test results should not be used to limit an individual’s opportunities for development and change.

  • When the results of an assessment will affect an individual's life, the techniques used must be reliable and valid for that individual and for the purpose in question.


Serenity

【Psychology and Life】Chapter 08 — Main Points

* All the following abstractions are excerpted from <Psychology and Life>, Richard J. Gerrig & Philip G. Zimbardo, 19th edition


Chapter 08 — Cognitive Process.


— Studying Cognition

  • Cognitive psychologists study the mental processes and structures that enable you to perceive, use...

* All the following abstractions are excerpted from <Psychology and Life>, Richard J. Gerrig & Philip G. Zimbardo, 19th edition


Chapter 08 — Cognitive Process.


— Studying Cognition

  • Cognitive psychologists study the mental processes and structures that enable you to perceive, use language, reason, solve problems, and make judgments and decisions.

  • Researchers use reaction time measures to break up complex tasks into underlying mental processes.


— Language Use

  • Language users both produce and understand language.

  • Speakers design their utterances to suit particular audiences.

  • Speech errors reveal many of the processes that go into speech planning.

  • Much of language understanding consists of using context to resolve ambiguities.

  • Memory representations of meaning begin with propositions supplemented with inferences.

  • Studies of language evolution have focused on grammatical structure and audience design.

  • The language individuals speak may play a role in determining how they think.


— Visual Cognition

  • Visual representations can be used to supplement propositional representations.

  • Visual representations allow you to think about visual aspects of your environment.

  • People form visual representations that combine verbal and visual information.


— Problem Solving and Reasoning

  • Problem solvers must define initial state, goal state, and the operations that get them from the initial to the goal state.

  • Deductive reasoning involves drawing conclusions from premises based on rules of logic.

  • Inductive reasoning involves inferring a conclusion from evidence based on its likelihood or probability.


— Judgment and Decision Making

  • Much of judgment and decision making is guided by heuristics — mental shortcuts that can help individuals reach solutions quickly.

  • Availability, representativeness, and anchoring can all lead to errors when they are misapplied.

  • Decision making is affected by the way in which different options are framed.

  • The possibility of regret makes some decisions hard, particularly for individuals who are maximizers rather than satisficers.


Serenity

【Psychology and Life】Chapter 07 — Main Points

* All the following abstractions are excerpted from <Psychology and Life>, Richard J. Gerrig & Philip G. Zimbardo, 19th edition


Chapter 07 — Memory.


— What is Memory?

  • Cognitive psychologists study memory as a type of information processing.

  • Memories involving conscious effort are...

* All the following abstractions are excerpted from <Psychology and Life>, Richard J. Gerrig & Philip G. Zimbardo, 19th edition


Chapter 07 — Memory.


— What is Memory?

  • Cognitive psychologists study memory as a type of information processing.

  • Memories involving conscious effort are explicit. Unconscious memories are implicit.

  • Declarative memory is memory for facts; procedural memory is memory for how to perform skills.

  • Memory is often viewed as a three-stage process of encoding, storage, and retrieval.


— Memory Use for the Short Term

  • Iconic memory has large capacity but very short duration.

  • Short-term memory (STM) has a limited capacity and lasts only briefly without rehearsal.

  • Maintenance rehearsal can extend the presence of material in STM indefinitely.

  • STM capacity can be increased by chunking unrelated items into meaningful groups.

  • The broader concept of working memory includes STM.

  • The four components of working memory provide the resources for moment-by-moment experiences of the world.


— Long-Term Memory: Encoding and Retrieval

  • Long-term memory (LTM) constitutes your total knowledge of the world and of yourself. It is nearly unlimited in capacity.

  • Your ability to remember information relies on the match between circumstances of encoding and retrieval.

  • Retrieval cues allow you to access information in LTM.

  • Episodic memory is concerned with memory for events that have been personally experienced. Semantic memory is memory for the basic meaning of words and concepts.

  • Similarity in context between learning and retrieval aids retrieval.

  • The serial position curve is explained by distinctiveness in context.

  • Information processed more deeply is typically remembered better.

  • For implicit memories, it is important that the processes of encoding and retrieval be similar.

  • Ebbinghaus studied the time course of forgetting.

  • Interference occurs when retrieval cues do not lead uniquely to specific memories.

  • Memory performance can be improved through elaborative rehearsal and mnemonics.

  • In general, feelings-of-knowing accurately predict the availability of information in memory.


— Structures in Long-Term Memory

  • Concepts are the memory building blocks of thinking. They are formed when memory processes gather together classes of objects or ideas with common properties.

  • Concepts are often organized in hierarchies, ranging from general, to basic level, to specific.

  • Schemas are more complex cognitive clusters.

  • All these memory structures are used to provide expectations and a context for interpreting new information.

  • Remembering is not simply recording but is a constructive process.

  • People encode flashbulb memories in response to events with great emotional significance, but those memories may not be more accurate than everyday memories.

  • New information can bias recall, making eyewitness memory unreliable when contaminated by postevent input.


— Biological Aspects of Memory

  • Different brain structures (including the hippocampus, the amygdala, the cerebellum, the striatum, and the cerebral cortex) have been shown to be involved in different types of memories.

  • Experiments with individuals with memory disorders have helped investigators understand how different types of memories are acquired and represented in the brain.

  • Brain-imaging techniques have extended knowledge about the brain bases of memory encoding and retrieval.


Serenity

【Psychology and Life】Chapter 06 — Main Points

* All the following abstractions are excerpted from <Psychology and Life>, Richard J. Gerrig & Philip G. Zimbardo, 19th edition


Chapter 06 — Learning and Behavior Analysis.


— The Study of Learning

  • Learning entails a relatively consistent change in behavior or behavior potential based...

* All the following abstractions are excerpted from <Psychology and Life>, Richard J. Gerrig & Philip G. Zimbardo, 19th edition


Chapter 06 — Learning and Behavior Analysis.


— The Study of Learning

  • Learning entails a relatively consistent change in behavior or behavior potential based on experience.

  • Behaviorists believe that much behavior can be explained by simple learning processes.

  • They also believe that many of the same principles of learning apply to all organisms.


— Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

  • In classical conditioning, first investigated by Pavlov, an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) elicits an unconditioned response (UCR). A neutral stimulus paired with the UCS becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS), which elicits a response, called the conditioned response (CR).

  • Extinction occurs when the UCS no longer follows the CS.

  • Stimulus generalization is the phenomenon whereby stimuli similar to the CS elicit the CR.

  • Discrimination learning narrows the range of CSs to which an organism responds.

  • For classical conditioning to occur, a contingent and informative relationship must exist between the CS and the UCS.

  • Classical conditioning explains many emotional responses and drug tolerance.


— Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

  • Thorndike demonstrated that behaviors that bring about satisfying outcomes tend to be repeated.

  • Skinner's behavior analytic approach centers on manipulating contingencies of reinforcement and observing the effects on behavior.

  • Behaviors are made more likely by positive and negative reinforcement. They are made less likely by positive and negative punishment.

  • Contextually appropriate behavior is explained by the three-term contingency of discriminative stimulus — behavior-consequence.

  • Primary reinforcers are stimuli that function as reinforcers even when an organism has not had previous experience with them. Conditioned reinforcers are acquired by association with primary reinforcers.

  • Probable activities function as positive reinforcers.

  • Behavior is affected by schedules of reinforcement that may be varied or fixed and delivered in intervals or ratios.

  • Complex responses may be learned through shaping.


— Biology and Learning

  • Research suggests that learning may be constrained by the species-specific repertoires of different organisms.

  • Instinctual drift may overwhelm some response-reinforcement learning.

  • Taste-aversion learning suggests that species are genetically prepared for some forms of associations.


— Cognitive Influence on Learning

  • Some forms of learning reflect more complex processes than those of classical or operant conditioning.

  • Animals develop cognitive maps to enable them to function in a complex environment.

  • Conceptual behavior allows animals to form generalizations about the structure of the environment.

  • Behaviors can be vicariously reinforced or punished. Humans and other animals can learn through observation.


MediciRequiem

  我们也指出,成功成长的一部分就是使用选择性优化与补偿。选择就是人们选择最合适自己的目标,优化就指人们在与自己关系最密切的领域锻炼或训练自己。补偿是指用其他的方法和途径来应付损失。虽然这个选择性优化的观点产生于对过老化过程的研究,但它也是概括你一生中所做选择的好方法。这是我们对毕生发展的最后忠告,我们希望你能聪明、健康地成长。
----------《心理学与生活》第11章 人的毕生发展

  我们也指出,成功成长的一部分就是使用选择性优化与补偿。选择就是人们选择最合适自己的目标,优化就指人们在与自己关系最密切的领域锻炼或训练自己。补偿是指用其他的方法和途径来应付损失。虽然这个选择性优化的观点产生于对过老化过程的研究,但它也是概括你一生中所做选择的好方法。这是我们对毕生发展的最后忠告,我们希望你能聪明、健康地成长。
----------《心理学与生活》第11章 人的毕生发展

Serenity

【Psychology and Life】Chapter 05 — Main Points

* All the following abstractions are excerpted from <Psychology and Life>, Richard J. Gerrig & Philip G. Zimbardo, 19th edition


Chapter 05 — Mind, Consciousness, and Alternate States.


— The Contents of Consciousness

  • Consciousness is an awareness of the mind’s contents.

  • The contents...

* All the following abstractions are excerpted from <Psychology and Life>, Richard J. Gerrig & Philip G. Zimbardo, 19th edition


Chapter 05 — Mind, Consciousness, and Alternate States.


— The Contents of Consciousness

  • Consciousness is an awareness of the mind’s contents.

  • The contents of waking consciousness contrast with non conscious processes, preconscious memories, unattended information, the unconscious, and conscious awareness.

  • Research techniques such as think-aloud protocols and experience sampling are used to study the contents of consciousness.


— The Functions of Consciousness

  • Consciousness aids your survival and enables you to construct both personal and culturally shared realities.

  • Researchers have studied the relationship between conscious and unconscious processes.


— Sleep and Dreams

  • Circadian rhythms reflect the operation of a biological clock.

  • Patterns of brain activity change over the course of a night's sleep. REM sleep is signaled by rapid eye movements.

  • The amount of sleep and relative proportion of REM to NREM sleep change with age.

  • REM and NREM sleep serve different functions, including conservation and restoration.

  • Sleep disorders such as insomnia, narcolepsy, and sleep apnea have a negative impact on people's ability to function during waking time.

  • Freud proposed that the content of dreams is unconscious material slipped by a sleeping censor.

  • In other cultures, dreams are interpreted regularly, often by people with special cultural roles.

  • Some dream theories have focused on biological explanations for the origins of dreams.


— Altered States of Consciousness

  • Lucid dreaming is an awareness that one is dreaming, in an attempt to control the dream.

  • Hypnosis is an alternate state of consciousness characterized by the ability of hypnotizable people to change perception, motivation, memory, and self-control in response to suggestions.

  • Meditation changes conscious functioning by ritual practices that focus attention away from external concerns to inner experience.


— Mind-Altering Drugs

  • Psychoactive drugs affect mental processes by temporarily changing consciousness as they modify nervous system activity.

  • Among psychoactive drugs that alter consciousness are hallucinogens, opiates, depressants, and stimulants.


Serenity

【Psychology and Life】Chapter 04 — Main Points

* All the following abstractions are excerpted from <Psychology and Life>, Richard J. Gerrig & Philip G. Zimbardo, 19th edition


Chapter 04 — Sensation and Perception.


— Perceptual Knowledge of the World

  • The task of perception is to determine what the distal (external) stimulus is...

* All the following abstractions are excerpted from <Psychology and Life>, Richard J. Gerrig & Philip G. Zimbardo, 19th edition


Chapter 04 — Sensation and Perception.


— Perceptual Knowledge of the World

  • The task of perception is to determine what the distal (external) stimulus is from the information contained in the proximal (sensory) stimulus.

  • Psychophysics investigates psychological responses to physical stimuli. Researchers measure absolute thresholds and just noticeable differences between stimuli.

  • Signal detection allows researchers to separate sensory acuity from response biases.

  • Researchers in psychophysics have captured the relationship between physical intensity and psychological effect with mathematical functions.

  • Sensation translates the physical energy of stimuli into neural codes via transduction.


— The Visual System

  • Photoreceptors in the retina, called rods and cones, convert light energy into neural impulses.

  • Ganglion cells in the retina integrate input from receptors and bipolar cells. Their axons form the optic nerves that meet at the optic chiasma.

  • Visual information is distributed to several different areas of the brain that process different aspects of the visual environment such as how things look and where they are.

  • The wavelength of light is the stimulus for color.

  • Color sensations differ in hue, saturation, and brightness.

  • Color vision theory combines the trichromatic theory of three color receptors with the opponent-process theory of color systems composed of opponent elements.


— Hearing

  • Hearing is produced by sound waves that vary in frequency, amplitude, and complexity.

  • In the cochlea, sound waves are transformed into fluid waves that move the basilar membrane. Hairs on the basilar membrane stimulate neural impulses that are sent to the auditory cortex.

  • Place theory best explains the coding of high frequencies, and frequency theory best explains the coding of low frequencies.

  • To compute the direction from which the sound is arriving, two types of neural mechanisms compute the relative intensity and timing of sounds coming to each ear.


— Your Other Senses

  • Smell and taste respond to the chemical properties of substances and work together when people are seeking and sampling food.

  • Olfaction is accomplished by odor-sensitive cells deep in the nasal passages.

  • Taste receptors are taste buds embedded in papillae, mostly in the tongue.

  • The cutaneous (skin) senses give sensations of pressure and temperature.

  • The vestibular sense gives information about the direction and rate of body motion.

  • The kinesthetic sense gives information about the position of body parts and and helps coordinate motion.

  • Pain is the body’s response to potentially harmful stimuli.

  • The physiological response to pain involves sensory response at the site of the pain stimulus and nerve impulses moving between the brain and the spinal cord.


— Organizational Processes in Perception

  • Perceptual processes organize sensations into coherent images and give you perception of objects and patterns.

  • Both your personal goals and the properties of the objects in the world determine where you will focus your attention.

  • The Gestalt psychologists provided several laws of perceptual grouping, including proximity, similarity, good continuation, closure, and common fate.

  • Perceptual processes integrate over both time and space to provide an interpretation of the environment.

  • Binocular, motion, and pictorial cues all contribute to the perception of depth.

  • You tend to perceive objects as having stable size, shape, and lightness.

  • Knowledge about perceptual illusions can provide constraints on ordinary perceptual processes.


— Identification and Recognition Processes

  • During the final stage of perceptual processing — identification and recognition of objects — percepts are given meaning through processes that combine bottom-up and top-down influences.

  • Ambiguity may arise when the same sensory information can be organized into different percepts.

  • Context, expectations, and perceptual sets may guide recognition of incomplete or ambiguous data in one direction rather than another equally possible one.


Serenity

【Psychology and Life】Chapter 03 — Main Points

* All the following abstractions are excerpted from <Psychology and Life>, Richard J. Gerrig & Philip G. Zimbardo, 19th edition


Chapter 03 — The Biological and Evolutionary Bases of Behavior. 


— Heredity and Behavior

  • Species originate and change over time because of natural...

* All the following abstractions are excerpted from <Psychology and Life>, Richard J. Gerrig & Philip G. Zimbardo, 19th edition


Chapter 03 — The Biological and Evolutionary Bases of Behavior. 


— Heredity and Behavior

  • Species originate and change over time because of natural selection.

  • In the evolution of humans, bipedalism and encephalization were responsible for subsequent advances, including language and culture.

  • The basic unit of heredity is the gene. Genes determine the range of effects the environmental factors can have in influencing the expression of phenotypic traits.


— The Nervous System in Action

  • The neuron, the basic unit of the nervous system, receives, processes, and relays information to other cells, glands, and muscles.

  • Neurons relay information from the dendrites through the cell body (soma) to the axon to the terminal buttons.

  • Sensory neurons receive messages from specialized receptor cells and send them toward the CNS. Motor neurons direct messages from the CNS to muscles and glands. Interneurons relay information from sensory neurons to other interneurons or to motor neurons.

  • Once the summation of inputs to a neuron exceeds a specific threshold, an action potential is sent along the axon to the terminal buttons.

  • All-or-none action potentials are created when the opening of ion channels allows an exchange of ions across the cell membrane.

  • Neurotransmitters are released into the synaptic gap between neurons. Once they diffuse across the gap, they lodge in the receptor molecules of the postsynaptic membrane.

  • Whether these neurotransmitters excite or inhibit the membrane depends on the nature of the receptor molecule.


— Biology and Behavior

  • Neuroscientists use several methods to research the relation between brain and behavior: studying brain-damaged patients, producing lesions at specific brain sites, electrically stimulating the brain, recording brain activity, and imaging the brain with computerized devices.

  • The brain and the spinal cord make up the central nervous system (CNS).

  • The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is composed of all neurons connecting the CNS to the body. The PNS consists of the somatic nervous system, which regulates the body's skeletal muscles, and the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which regulates life-support processes.

  • The brain consists of three integrated layers: the brain stem, limbic system, and cerebrum.

  • The brain stem is responsible for breathing, digestion, and heart rate.

  • The limbic system is involved in long-term memory, aggression, eating, drinking, and sexual behavior.

  • The cerebrum controls higher mental functions.

  • Some functions are lateralized to one hemisphere of the brain. For example, most individuals have speech localized in the left hemisphere.

  • Although the two hemispheres of the brain work smoothly in concert, they typically embody different styles of processing: The left hemisphere is more analytic; the right hemisphere is more holistic.

  • The endocrine system produces and secretes hormones into the bloodstream.

  • Hormones help regulate growth, primary and secondary sexual characteristics, metabolism, digestion, and arousal.

  • New cell growth and life experiences reshape the brain after birth.


Serenity

【Psychology and Life】Chapter 02 — Main Points

* All the following abstractions are excerpted from <Psychology and Life>, Richard J. Gerrig & Philip G. Zimbardo, 19th edition


Chapter 02 — Research Methods in Psychology.


— The Process of Research

  • In the initial phase of research, observations, beliefs, information, and general...

* All the following abstractions are excerpted from <Psychology and Life>, Richard J. Gerrig & Philip G. Zimbardo, 19th edition


Chapter 02 — Research Methods in Psychology.


— The Process of Research

  • In the initial phase of research, observations, beliefs, information, and general knowledge lead to a new way of thinking about a phenomenon. The researcher formulates a theory and generates hypotheses to be tested.

  • To test their ideas, researchers use the scientific method, a set of procedures for gathering and interpreting evidence in ways that limit errors.

  • Researchers combat observer biases by standardizing procedures and using operational definitions.

  • Experimental research methods determine whether causal relationships exist between variables specified by the hypothesis being tested.

  • Researchers rule out alternative explanations by using appropriate control procedures.

  • Correlational research methods determine if and how much two variables are related. Correlations do not imply causation.


— Psychological Measurement

  • Researchers strive to produce measures that are both reliable and valid.

  • Psychological measurements include self-reports and behavioral measures.


— Ethical Issues in Human and Animal Research

  • Respect for the basic rights of human and animal research participants is the obligation of all researchers. A variety of safeguards have been enacted to guarantee ethical and humane treatment.


— Becoming a Critical Consumer of Research

  • Becoming a wise research consumer involves learning how to think critically and knowing how to evaluate claims about what research shows.


Serenity

【Psychology and Life】Chapter 01 — Main Points

* All the following abstractions are excerpted from <Psychology and Life>, Richard J. Gerrig & Philip G. Zimbardo, 19th edition


Chapter 01 — Psychology and Life. 


— What Makes Psychology Unique?

  • Psychology is the scientific study of the behavior and the mental processes of individuals...

* All the following abstractions are excerpted from <Psychology and Life>, Richard J. Gerrig & Philip G. Zimbardo, 19th edition


Chapter 01 — Psychology and Life. 


— What Makes Psychology Unique?

  • Psychology is the scientific study of the behavior and the mental processes of individuals.

  • The goals of psychology are to describe, explain, predict, and help control behavior.


— The Evolution of Modern Psychology

  • Structuralism emerged from the work of Wundt and Titchener. It emphasized the structure of the mind and behavior built from elemental sensations.

  • Functionalism, developed by James and Dewey, emphasized the purpose behind behavior.

  • Taken together, these theories created the agenda for modern psychology.

  • Women made substantial research contributions in psychology's early history.

  • Each of the seven perspectives on psychology differs in its view of human nature, the determinants of behavior, the focus of study, and the primary research approach.

  • The psychodynamic perspective looks at behavior as driven by instinctive forces, inner conflicts, and conscious and unconscious motivations.

  • The behaviorist perspective views behavior as determined by external stimulus conditions.

  • The humanistic perspective emphasizes an individual's inherent capacity to make rational choices.

  • The cognitive perspective stresses mental processes that affect behavioral responses.

  • The biological perspective studies relationships between behavior and brain mechanisms.

  • The evolutionary perspective looks at behavior as having evolved as an adaptation for survival in the environment.

  • The sociocultural perspective examines behavior and its interpretation in cultural context.


— What Psychologists Do

  • Psychologists work in a variety of settings and draw on expertise from a range of specialty areas.

  • Almost any question that can be generated about real-life experiences is addressed by some member of the psychological profession.


kinovi

看完心理学与生活第二章,对统计学特别感兴趣了。第二章 心理学的研究与方法笔记

看完心理学与生活第二章,对统计学特别感兴趣了。第二章 心理学的研究与方法笔记

gemidashijie

罗恩·古特曼回顾了一大批关于微笑的研究,并发现了一些惊人的结果。你知道吗,微笑能够预测你的寿命有多长!微微的一笑能对你的幸福生活产生不小影响?请一边放松面部肌肉,一边深入了解这种传染性极高的行为。(翻译:Lili Liang,审译:Ralph Jin)

微笑吧,别吝啬你的微笑!!

罗恩·古特曼回顾了一大批关于微笑的研究,并发现了一些惊人的结果。你知道吗,微笑能够预测你的寿命有多长!微微的一笑能对你的幸福生活产生不小影响?请一边放松面部肌肉,一边深入了解这种传染性极高的行为。(翻译:Lili Liang,审译:Ralph Jin)

微笑吧,别吝啬你的微笑!!

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