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红星照耀中国

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江子城.

【语文】八年级上册课外书红星照耀中国知识点概括(2)

*八年级上册课外书红星照耀中国知识点概括


一、作品简介:

《红星照耀中国》(Red Star Over China)又称《西行漫记》,是美国著名记者埃德加斯诺的不朽名著,一部文笔优美的纪实性很强的报道性作品。 

作者真实记录了自1936年6月至10月在中国西北革命根据地;(以延安为中心的陕甘宁边区)进行实地采访的所见所闻,向全世界真实报道了中国共产党和中国工农红军以及许多红军领袖、红军将领的情况。

毛泽东、周恩来和朱德是斯诺笔下最具代表性的人物形象。


二、作者简介:

作者埃德加.斯诺于1905年出生在美国密苏里州堪萨斯市,是家中三个孩子中最小的一个。

他父亲开了...

*八年级上册课外书红星照耀中国知识点概括


一、作品简介:

《红星照耀中国》(Red Star Over China)又称《西行漫记》,是美国著名记者埃德加斯诺的不朽名著,一部文笔优美的纪实性很强的报道性作品。 

作者真实记录了自1936年6月至10月在中国西北革命根据地;(以延安为中心的陕甘宁边区)进行实地采访的所见所闻,向全世界真实报道了中国共产党和中国工农红军以及许多红军领袖、红军将领的情况。

毛泽东、周恩来和朱德是斯诺笔下最具代表性的人物形象。


二、作者简介:

作者埃德加.斯诺于1905年出生在美国密苏里州堪萨斯市,是家中三个孩子中最小的一个。

他父亲开了一家小印刷厂,家里过着小康生活。

父亲要他也从印刷业开始自己的生涯。但他却走上了一条与父亲截然不同的道路,成为世界著名的记者。

埃德加。斯诺于1928 年来华,曾任欧美几家报社驻华记者、通讯员。1933年4 月到1935年6月,斯诺同时兼任北平燕京大学新闻系讲师。

1936 年6月斯诺访问陕甘宁边区,写了大量通讯报道,成为第一个采访红区的西方记者。


三、写作经历:

作者于1936年6月至10月对中国西北革命根据地进行了实地考察,根据考察所掌握的第一手材料完成了《西行漫记》的写作,斯诺作为一个西方新闻记者,对中国共产党和中国革命作了客观评价,并向全世界作了公正报道。

斯诺同毛泽东、周恩来等进行了多次长时间的谈话,搜集了二万五千里长征第一手资料。改革,民情风俗习惯等作了广泛深入的调查。

四个月的采访,他密密麻麻写满了14个笔记本。当年10月底,斯诺带着他的采访资料、胶卷和照片,从陕北回到北平,经过几个月的埋头写作,《红星照耀中国》 报告文学终于诞生。


四、各章概述【共十二章】:

第一章:探寻红色中国。讲述作者对红色世界的好奇,开始深入苏维埃红区的冒险,去探究苏维埃共和国、红军、共产党的秘密。并且讲述了张学良和杨虎成与共产党达成一致搞日协议的原因和经过。

第二章:去红都的道路。讲述在进入红区的路途上被白匪追逐的经历,并讲述了国民党通过“民团”这一组织对地方的统治和镇压政策。介绍了周恩来及贺龙的人生经历以及他们独特的个人魅力。介绍了许多年轻的红军战士们因为被剥削被压迫的命运而参加红军、热爱红军的故事。

第三章:在保安。讲述了共产党领导人毛泽东给作者的初步印象:健康、质朴纯真,有幽默感、精明、精力过人,是一个颇有天赋的军事和政治战略家。谈到了共产党的基本政策是反帝反封。红军大学开展的各项课程以及红军剧社开展的宣传工作。

第四章:一个共产党员的由来。本章讲述了共产党领导人毛泽东的人生经历、思想变改以及成长为红军领导人的过程。

第五章:长征。讲述了红军长征的艰难过程。着生记叙了第五次大围剿,以及长征中强渡大渡河、过大草原等艰难英勇的事迹。

第六章:讲述了刘志丹开创西北苏区的历程,西北大灾荒和苛捐杂税给人民带来的苦难。苏维埃社会、政治、经济、文化、货币各方而政策。

第七章:讲述了普通农民对红军的拥护,对苏区工业的繁荣以及苏区工人身上具有的乐观活泼的社会主义工业精神。

第八章:讲述了作者深入到真正的红军内部,了解他们年轻、精神饱满、训练严格、纪律严明、装备出色、政治觉悟高,才使得他们成为铁打的军队。还讲述了彭德怀司令走上革命道路的悲惨童年经历,以及他独特的个人魅力。红军采取游击战术的原因及对策红军战士过着健康的生活。

第九章:共产党军事领导人徐海东的人生历程,以及中国残酷的阶级战争给老百姓带来的杀戮和苦难。讲述共产党团结回族人民抵抗压迫者的策略。 

第十章:讲述红色中国的少年们耐心、勤劳、聪明、努力学习,代表着中国的希望,讲述共产党为建立统一战线所做的努力以及革命领导人朱德极其杰出的领导才能和个人魅力。

第十一章:讲述了在敌人封锁下的保安地区,红军丰富多彩的生活。讲述了俄国对于红色中国的影响以及德国顾问李德指挥作战时出现的失误及其原因。

第十二章:详细记述了“西安事变”的具体经过、结果,以及对形成抗日民族统一战线的积极影响。并分析了中国社会革命运动的复杂社会背景、面临挑战及其终将取得胜利的原因。


五、作品影响∶

《红星照耀中国》不仅在政治意义上取得了极大的成功,而且在报告文学创作的艺术手法上也成为同类作品的典范。

人物刻面、环境描写以及叙事的角度几近出神入化的程度在《红星照耀中国》中,斯诺探求了中国革命发生的背景、发展的原因。

他判断由于中国共产党的宣传和具体行动,使穷人和受压迫者对国家、社会和个人有了新的理念,有了必须行动起来的新的信念。

由于有了这一种思想武装, 使得批青年, 能够对国民党的统治进行群众性的斗争长达十年之久。

他对长征表达了钦佩之情,断言长征实际上是一场战略撒退,称费长征是一部英雄史诗,是现代史上的无与伦比的一次远征, 斯诺用毋庸置疑的事实向世界宣告:中国共产党及其领导的革命事业犹如一颗闪亮的红星不仅照是着中国的西北,而且必将照耀全中国,照耀全世界。

《红星照螺中国》的另一魅力, 在于描绘了中国共产党人和红军战士坚韧不拔、英勇卓绝的伟大斗争,以及他们的领柏人物的伟大面平凡的精神风貌,他面对面来街了毛泽东,周恩来、形德怀、贺龙等中国共产党的领导人和红军将领,结下了成战或深的交情,其中最素要的无疑是毛泽东。

所诺准确地把提到毛泽东同以农民为主体的中国民众的精神组带。教有人比毛泽东更了解他们,更擅长综合、表达和了解他们的意思这将深到地制的看以后数十年中国现代化的进程,包括其成功和曲折。


六、艺术特色∶

1、材料真实,难能可贵的实录精神。

2、高超的人物描写艺术,细腻的笔触,入微的描写,真实再现了一个个血肉丰满的人物形象。

3、语言朴实,引用大量客观真实的原话,增加了作品的感染力,真实再现了在抗战时期中国的社会现实。


双豹真他娘好嗑

我的妈这俩都太可爱了吧!!!!学习突然有了动力呢(?

我的妈这俩都太可爱了吧!!!!学习突然有了动力呢(?

SMBS  C1801

《红星照耀中国》读后感 贺熙帮

作者埃德加.斯诺,怀着对中国革命战士的重重疑问,以一名记者的身份,冒生命危险奔赴当时被刻意曲解的革命根据地,与革命领导人进行谈话,然后他运用平实、质朴的文字把一段波澜壮阔激情燃烧的岁月鲜活的呈现在了这本书上。


在书中,斯诺还对国民党进行狠狠的驳斥,驳斥了他们一直对外宣称共产党为“狂热分子”、“无知土匪”的这种行为。他在书中对毛泽东主席大加赞赏:然而毛泽东还是一个精通中国旧学的有成就的学者,他博览群书,对哲学和历史有深入地研究,但是对于工作却事无巨细、一丝不苟,他精力过人、不知疲倦,是一个颇有天赋的军事和政治战略家。除此之外,还有头脑冷静不屈不挠的周恩来,战无不胜的林彪,令地主乡绅闻风丧胆...

作者埃德加.斯诺,怀着对中国革命战士的重重疑问,以一名记者的身份,冒生命危险奔赴当时被刻意曲解的革命根据地,与革命领导人进行谈话,然后他运用平实、质朴的文字把一段波澜壮阔激情燃烧的岁月鲜活的呈现在了这本书上。


在书中,斯诺还对国民党进行狠狠的驳斥,驳斥了他们一直对外宣称共产党为“狂热分子”、“无知土匪”的这种行为。他在书中对毛泽东主席大加赞赏:然而毛泽东还是一个精通中国旧学的有成就的学者,他博览群书,对哲学和历史有深入地研究,但是对于工作却事无巨细、一丝不苟,他精力过人、不知疲倦,是一个颇有天赋的军事和政治战略家。除此之外,还有头脑冷静不屈不挠的周恩来,战无不胜的林彪,令地主乡绅闻风丧胆的贺龙,还有彭德怀、朱德、洛浦、徐特立、左权等一批优秀的革命领袖,以及他们那讲不完的英雄事迹。他们用那火一样的爱国情怀,燃起了中国人民的革命热情。他们用那铁一样的坚定意志,斩去了旧中国的病根肿瘤。


我们现在坐在明亮温暖的教室里,可以接受最好的教育,不妨好好想想,是谁让我们过上了这充满阳光与微笑的生活?是中国共产党。即使现在是和平年代,不要也不能忘记无数在革命斗争中流血流汗的革命先驱,是他们在那民哀国殇、狼烟四起、人人自危的年代挑起了民族的大梁,为我们现在的幸福生活冲锋陷阵赴汤蹈火。

 


SMBS  C1801

《红星照耀中国》读后感 康博儒

《红星照耀中国》这本书证明了一个记者的正直和职业道德,斯诺客观详实的报道了中国共产党的主张、纲领,让全世界知道,在这个人口最多的国家,真正的未来在哪里。

另一方面,这本书也是研究党的历史、了解领袖们的资料,作为在当时写成的第一手资料,其中不仅详细介绍了红军的征战史,并且从政治、军事、经济等各方面进行了报道和解释,从某种角度来讲,这是第一部把新的中国介绍给世界的书,也是中国人从另一个角度了解、回顾党和军队的途径。

当时的中国,内忧外患。侵略者的铁蹄践踏着国土,而当权者的屠刀则指向人民,整个中国置身于水深火热之中,这个时候,迫切的需要有人站出来挽救危局,这个人无疑就是毛泽东领导下的中国共产党。...

《红星照耀中国》这本书证明了一个记者的正直和职业道德,斯诺客观详实的报道了中国共产党的主张、纲领,让全世界知道,在这个人口最多的国家,真正的未来在哪里。

另一方面,这本书也是研究党的历史、了解领袖们的资料,作为在当时写成的第一手资料,其中不仅详细介绍了红军的征战史,并且从政治、军事、经济等各方面进行了报道和解释,从某种角度来讲,这是第一部把新的中国介绍给世界的书,也是中国人从另一个角度了解、回顾党和军队的途径。

当时的中国,内忧外患。侵略者的铁蹄践踏着国土,而当权者的屠刀则指向人民,整个中国置身于水深火热之中,这个时候,迫切的需要有人站出来挽救危局,这个人无疑就是毛泽东领导下的中国共产党。

在党的初期,由于共产国际的干预和一些不安定因素,曾受到过很大的损失,新生的中国共产党多次面临生死存亡的局面。然而领袖们的睿智使党走上了正确的道路,确立坚定不移的纲领,团结一切可团结的力量,为中国,为中国人民,进行着不屈不挠的顽强抗争。

只有人民拥护和支持的政府,才能让国家看到未来,在中国共产党的领导下,中国人民没有被侵略者的刺刀击退,没有被当权者的白色恐怖吓倒,在无数人的流血牺牲之后,更多的人勇敢地站出来,把自己的一切奉献给崇高的事业。

在多方打击和封锁的情况下,共产党和所领导的队伍却在逐渐壮大,在震惊世界的二万五千里长征之后,没有人能再轻视这股不可抵挡的力量,一切关于“无知土匪”的谣言不攻自破,这是一个代表广大人民群众的政党,这是一个有着执着信仰、严格纪律的政党。

忘记历史意味着背叛。

《红星照耀中国》可以让我们知道,中国共产党及其军队所经受过的苦难、牺牲,今天的幸福来自昨天的奋斗,多少人的流血才造就我们今天的辉煌。

历史是沉痛的,幸而这种情况不会再次发生,党领导下的中国日益强大,但是,昨天的硝烟虽已散去,鲜血虽已干涸,这段历史却该永远保存在后代子孙的记忆。

了解过去,才能更加感受到中国共产党的伟大,这种伟大,将会给中国带来新的辉煌!

废shuui

小孩的暑假作业,我就不一样了,我只看到“我尤其讨厌一门静物写生课”。🐦

小孩的暑假作业,我就不一样了,我只看到“我尤其讨厌一门静物写生课”。🐦

废shuui
我尤其讨厌一门静物写生必修课。...

我尤其讨厌一门静物写生必修课。我认为这门课极端无聊。我往往想出最简单的东西来画,草草画完就离开教室。记得有一次我画了一条直线,上面加上一个半圆,表示‘半壁见海日’。又有一次,在图画考试时,我画了一个椭圆形就算了事,说这是蛋。结果图画课得了四十分,不及格。

我尤其讨厌一门静物写生必修课。我认为这门课极端无聊。我往往想出最简单的东西来画,草草画完就离开教室。记得有一次我画了一条直线,上面加上一个半圆,表示‘半壁见海日’。又有一次,在图画考试时,我画了一个椭圆形就算了事,说这是蛋。结果图画课得了四十分,不及格。

小楔齿蜥晒月亮

再看这一段,还是觉得简直绝了。阿祖的敲打和贾老板的试探,很有意思。阿祖作为朋友已经算是仁至义尽了吧,奈何贾老板修为深厚,反过来把他拽到坑里去了。叔和刘老师真是两个大可爱,演得好啊。
还是好剧本能让人zqsg_(:з」∠)_
顺便,叔叔的手难得也能这么好看,私心放一张_(•̀ω•́ 」∠)_

再看这一段,还是觉得简直绝了。阿祖的敲打和贾老板的试探,很有意思。阿祖作为朋友已经算是仁至义尽了吧,奈何贾老板修为深厚,反过来把他拽到坑里去了。叔和刘老师真是两个大可爱,演得好啊。
还是好剧本能让人zqsg_(:з」∠)_
顺便,叔叔的手难得也能这么好看,私心放一张_(•̀ω•́ 」∠)_

李小白的慢时光

长征(红军的成长)/The Long March(四)

"红军现在发动自己的攻势了。1932年它在福建漳州打了一个打仗,占领了这个城市,在南方,红军在南雄进攻了陈济堂,而在蒋介石的路线上,红军猛攻乐安、黎川、建宁和泰宁。它攻打了赣州,但没有占领。从1932年10月起,直到长征西北开始,我本人几乎全部时间处理苏维埃政府工作,军事指挥工作交了个朱德和其他的人。"

"The Red Army now began offensives of its own. In 1932 it fought a great battle at Changchow, in Fukien, and captured the city. In...

"红军现在发动自己的攻势了。1932年它在福建漳州打了一个打仗,占领了这个城市,在南方,红军在南雄进攻了陈济堂,而在蒋介石的路线上,红军猛攻乐安、黎川、建宁和泰宁。它攻打了赣州,但没有占领。从1932年10月起,直到长征西北开始,我本人几乎全部时间处理苏维埃政府工作,军事指挥工作交了个朱德和其他的人。"

"The Red Army now began offensives of its own. In 1932 it fought a great battle at Changchow, in Fukien, and captured the city. In the South it attacked Ch'en Chi-t'ang at Nan Hsiang, and on Chiang Kaishek's front it stormed Lo An,Li Chuan, Chien Ning and T'ai Ning. It attacked but did not occupy Kanchow. From October,1932, onward, and until the beginning of the Long March to the Noverthwest, I myself devoted my time almost exclusively to work with the Soviet Government, leaving the military command to Chu Teh and others."

”1933年4月,南京开始第四次,也许是败得最惨的一次‘围剿’,这一次红军第一仗就把敌两个师解除了武装,俘虏了两个师长,敌第59师被部分消灭,第52师被全部消灭。这一仗是在安乐县的大龙坪和桥汇打的,红军一举就俘获了1.3万敌军。蒋介石最精锐的部队国民党第11师,接着也被消灭,几乎全部被缴械,它的师长受了重伤,这几仗构成了决定性的转折点,第四次‘围剿’随机结束,蒋介石当时写信给他的占地司令官陈诚,说他认为这次失败是他一生中‘最大的耻辱’。陈诚是不赞成搞这种‘围剿’的,他当时对人说,在他看来,同红军作战是一种‘终身职业’,也是一种‘无期徒刑’。这话传到蒋介石那里,他就解除了陈诚的总司令职务。"

"In April, 1933, began the fourth and, for Nanking, perhaps the most disastrous of its 'extermination campaigns'. In the first battle of this period two divisions were disarmed and two divisional commanders were captured. The Fifty-ninth Divison was partly destroyed and the Fifty-second was completely destroyed. Thirteen thousand men were captured in this one battle at Ta Lung P'ing and Chiao Hui in Lo An Hsien. The Kuomintang's Eleventh Division, then Chiang Kai shek's best, was next eliminated ,being almost totally diarmed; its commander was seriously wounded. These engagements proved decisive turning points and the Fourth Campaign soon afterwards ended. Chiang Kai-shek at this time wrote to Ch'en Ch'eng, his field commander, that he considered this defeat 'the greatest humiliation' in his life. Ch'en Ch'eng did not favor pushing the campaign. He told people then that in his opinion fighting the Reds was a 'lifetime job' and a 'life sentence'. Reports of this coming to Chiang Kai-shek, he removed Ch'en Ch'eng from the high command."

“为了他的第五次,也是最后一次‘围剿’,蒋介石动员了将近100万人,而且采取了新的战术和战略,蒋介石根据德国顾问们的建议,在第四次‘围剿’时就已经开始采用堡垒体系。在第五次‘围剿’中,他就完全依赖这个了。”

"For his fifth and last campain, Chiang Kai-shek mobilized nearly one million men and adopted new tactics and strategy. Already, in the Fourth Campaign, Chiang had , on the recommendation of his German advisers, begun the use of the blockhouse and fortifications system. In the Fifth Campaign he placed his entire reliance upon it."

“在这个时期,我们犯了两个重大的错误。其一是1933年福建事变中没有能同蔡廷锴的部队联合。其二是放弃了我们以前的运动战术,而采用错误的单纯防御战略,用阵地战对付占巨大优势的南京军队,是一个严重的错误,因为红军无论在技术上或者在精神上都不适合于阵地战。”

"In this period we made two important errors. The first was the failure to unite with Ts'ai T'ing-k'ai's army in 1933 during the Fukien Rebellion. The second was the adoption of the erroneous strategy of simple defense, abandoning our former tactics of maneuver. It was a serious mistake to meet the vastly superior Nanking forces in positional warfare, at which the Red Army was neither technically nor spirtually at its best."

“由于犯了这些错误,由于蒋介石在‘围剿’中采用新的战术和战略,加上国民党军地在数量上技术上压倒的优势,到了1934年,红军不得不努力去改变它在江西的迅速恶化的处境了。其次,全国的政治形势也促使我们决定将主要的活动场所迁移到西北区,由于日本侵略东北和上海,苏维埃政府早在1932年2月就已经正式对日宣战。但因苏维埃中国遭到国民党军队封锁包围,宣战自然不能生效,接着,苏维埃政府又发表宣言,号召中国所有武装力量组成统一战线,抵抗日本帝国主义。1933年初,苏维埃政府宣布愿在下列基础上同任何白军合作:停止内战,停止进攻苏区和红军;保障民众的公民自由和民主权利;武装人民进行抗日战争。”

"As a result of these mistakes, and the new tactics and strategy of Chiang's campaign, combined with the overwhelming numerical and technical superiority of the Kuomintang forces, the Red Army was obliged, in 1934, to seek to change the conditions of its existence in Kiangsi, which were rapidly becoming more unfavorable. Second, the national political situation influenced the decision to move the scene of main operations to the Northwest. Following Japan's invasion of Manchuria and Shanghai, the Soviet Government had ,as early as February, 1932, formally declared war on Japan. This declaration, which could not , of course, be made effective ,owing to the blockade and enciclement of Soviet China by the Kuomintang troops, had been followed by the issuance of a manifesto calling for a united front of  all armed forces in China to resist Japanese imperialism. Early in 1933 the Soviet Goverment announced that it would cooperate with any White army on the basis of cessation of civil war and attacks on the soviets and the Red Army, guarantee of civil liberties and democratic rights to the masses, and arming of the people for an anti-Japanese war." 

“第五次‘围剿’于1933年10月开始,1934年1月,在苏维埃首都瑞金召开了第二次中华全国苏维埃代表大会,总结革命的成就,我在会上作了长篇报告,大会选举了中央苏维埃政府——就是现在的这批人员。不久以后,我们就准备长征了,长征开始于1934年10月,在蒋介石发动他的最后一次‘围剿’刚好1年,这一年作战和斗争几乎不断,双方的损失都很大。”

"The Fifth Extermination Campaign began in October, 1933. In January,1934, the Second All-China Congress of Soviets was convened in Juichin, the soviet capital,and a survey of the achievements of revolution took place. Here I gave a long report, and here the Central Soviet Government, as its personnel exists today, was elected. Preparations soon afterwards were made for the Long March. It was begun in October, 1934, just a year after Chiang Kai-shek launched his last campaign---a year of almost constant fighting, struggle and enormous losses on both sides." 

“1935年1月,红军主力到达贵州遵义,在随后的4个月,红军几乎不断地行军,并且进行了最有力的战斗。红军经历了无数艰难险阻,横渡中国最长、最深、最湍急的江河,越过一些最高、最险的山口,通过凶猛的土著居民的地区,跋涉荒无人烟的大草地、经手严寒酷暑、风霜雨雪,遭到全中国白军半数的追击——红军通过了所有一切天然障碍物,并且打破了粤、湘、桂、黔、滇、康、川、甘、陕地方军队的堵截,终于在1935年10月到达了陕北,扩大了目前在中国的大西北的根据地。”

"By January, 1935,the main forces of the Red Army reached Tsunyi, in Kweichow. For the next four months the army was almost constantly moving and the most energetic combat and fighting took place. Through many, many difficulties, across the  longest and deepest and most dangerous rivers of  China, across some of fierce aborigines, through all these natural barriers, and fighting its way past the local troops of Kwangtung, Hunan, Kwangsi, Kweichow, Yunan,Sikang, Szechuan, Kansu, and shensi, the Red Army at last reached northern Shensi in October, 1935, and enlarged its base in China's great Northwest."

“红军的胜利行军,胜利到达陕、甘,而其有生力量依然完整无损,这首先是由于共产党的正确领导,其次是由于苏维埃人民的基本干部的伟大的才能、勇气、决心以及几乎是超人的吃苦耐劳的革命热情。中国共产党过去、现在、将来都忠于马列主义,并将继续进行斗争反对一起机会主义倾向。它之所以不可战胜,所以一定取得最后胜利,其原因之一就在于这种决心。”

"The victorious march of the Red Army, and its triumphant arrival in Kansu and Shensi with its living forces still intact, was due first to the correct leadership of the Communist Party, and second to the great skill, courage, determination,and almost superhuman endurance and revolutionary ardor of the basic cadres of our soviet people. The Communist Party of China was , is ,and will ever be faithful to Marxism-Leninism , and it will continue its struggles against every opportunist tendency. In this determination lies one explanation of its invincibility and the certainty of its final victory."

长征的统计数字是令人惊讶的,几乎平均每天就有一次遭遇战,发生在路上或某个地方,总共有15个整天用在打大决战上。路上一共368天,有235天用在白天行军上,18天用在夜间行军上。休息的100天——其中有许多天打遭遇战——有56天在四川西北,因此总长5000英里的路上只休息了44天,平均每走114英里休息一次,平均每天行军71华里,即近24英里,一支大军和它的辎重在一个地球最险峻的地带保持这样的平均速度,可说近乎奇迹。

The statistical recapitulation of the Long March is impressive. It shows that there was an average of almost a skirmish a day, somewhere on the line, while altogether fifteen whole days were devoted to major pitched battles. Out of a total of 368 days en route , 235were consumed in marches by day, and 18 in marchees by night. Of the 100 days of halts-----many of which weredevoted to skirmishes------56 days were spent in northwestrn Szechuan, leaving only 44 days of rest over a distance of about 5,000 miles, or an average of one halt for every 114 miles of marching. The daily stage covered was 71 li, or nearly 24 miles------a phenomenal pace for a great army and its transport to average over some of the most hazardous terrain on earth.

红军一共爬过18座山脉,其中5座是终年盖雪的,渡过24条河流,经过12个省份,占领过62座大小城市,突破10个地方军阀军队的包围,此外还打败、躲过或胜过派来追击他们的中央军各部队。他们开进和顺利地穿过6个不同的少数民族地区,有些地方是中国军队几十年没有去过的地方。

According to data furnished to me by Commander Tso Ch'uan, the Reds crossed eighteen mountain ranges, five of which were perennially snow-capped, and they crossed twenty-four rivers. They passed through twelve different provices, occupied sixty-two cities and towns, and broke through enveloping armies of ten different provincial warloards , besides defeating, eluding, or outmaneuvering the various forces of Central Government troops sent against them. They crossed six different aboriginal districts, and penetrated areas through which no Chinese army had gone for scores of years.

在某种意义上,这次大规模的转移是历史上最盛大的武装巡回宣传。红军经过的省份有2亿多人民。在战斗的间隙,他们每占有一个城镇,就召开群众大会,举行戏剧演出,征收富人,解放许多“奴隶”,宣传“自由、平等和民主”,没收“卖国贼(官僚、地主)”的财产,把他们的财物分配给穷人。现在有千百万的农民看到了红军,听到了他们的讲话,不再感到害怕了,红军解释了土地革命的目的,他们的抗日政策,他们武装了千千万万的农民,留下了干部来训练游击队,使南京军队从此疲于奔命。在漫长的艰苦的征途上,有成千上万的人倒下了,可是又另外有成千上万——农民、学徒、奴隶、国民党逃兵、工人、一切赤贫如洗的人民——参加进来充实了行列。

In one sense this mass migration was the biggest armed propaganda tour in history. The Reds passed through provinces populated by more than 200,000,000 people. Between battles and skirmishes, in every town occupied , they called mass meetings, gave theatrical performances, heavily"taxed" the rich, freed many "slaves",preached "liberty, equality, democracy", confiscated the property of the "traitors" and distributed their goods among the poor. Millions of the poor had now seen the Red Army and heard it speak, and were no longer afraid of it. The Reds explained the aims of agrarian revolution and their anti-Janpanese policy. They armed thousands of peasants and left cadres behind to train Red partisans who kept Nanking's troops busy. Many thousands dropped out on the long  and heartbreaking march ,but thousands of others------farmers, apprentices, slaves, deserters from the Kuomintang ranks, workers, all the disinherited-------joined in and filled the ranks.

总有一天人们会把这部激动人心的远征史诗全部写下来。

Some day someone will write the full epic of this exciting expedition. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

李小白的慢时光

在长沙的日子/DaysInChangSha(二)

“我开始注意报纸上的广告。那时候,办了许多学校,通过报纸广告找来的新生。我并没有一定的标准来判断学校的优劣,对自己究竟想要做什么也没有明确主见。一则警察学堂的广告,引起我的注意,于是去报名投考。但在考试以前,我看到一所制造肥皂的学校的广告,不收学费,提供食宿,还答应给写津贴。这则广告很吸引人,鼓舞人。它说制造肥皂对社会大有好处,可以福国利民,我改变了投考警校的念头,决定却做一个肥皂制造家。我在这里也交了1元钱的报名费。”

“I began to read advertisements in the papers. Many schools werethen being opened and...

“我开始注意报纸上的广告。那时候,办了许多学校,通过报纸广告找来的新生。我并没有一定的标准来判断学校的优劣,对自己究竟想要做什么也没有明确主见。一则警察学堂的广告,引起我的注意,于是去报名投考。但在考试以前,我看到一所制造肥皂的学校的广告,不收学费,提供食宿,还答应给写津贴。这则广告很吸引人,鼓舞人。它说制造肥皂对社会大有好处,可以福国利民,我改变了投考警校的念头,决定却做一个肥皂制造家。我在这里也交了1元钱的报名费。”

“I began to read advertisements in the papers. Many schools werethen being opened and used this medium to attract new students. Ihad no special standard for judging schools; I did not know exactlywhat I wanted to do. An advertisement for a police school caught myeye and I registered for entrance to it. Before I was examined,however, I read an advertisement of  asoap-making  school. No tuition was required,board was furnished and a small salary was promised. It was anattractive and inspiring advertisement. It told of the great socialbenefits of soap making, how it would enrich the country and enrichthe people. I changed my mind about the police school and decidedto become a soap maker. I paid my dollar registration fee herealso.”

“这时候,我又一个朋友成为了政法学生,他劝我进他的学校。我也读到了这所政法学堂的娓娓动听的广告,它许下种种好听的诺言,答应在3年内教完全部法律课程,并且保证期满之后马上可以当官。我的那位朋友不断向我称赞这个学校,最后我写信给家里,把广告上所答应的一切诺言描述了一番。我向法政学堂交了1元钱的报名费,等候父母的回信。”

“Meanwhile a friend of mine had become a law student and heurged me to enter his school. I also read an alluring advetisementof this law school, which promised many wonderful things. Itpromised to teach studens all about law in three years andguaranteed that at the end of htis preiod they would instantlybecome mandarins. My friend kept praising the school to me, untilfinally I wrote to my family, repeated all the promises of theadvertisement, and asked them to send me tuition money. I painted abright picture for them of my future as a jurist and mandarin. ThenI paid a dollar to register in the law school and waited to hearfrom my parents. ”

“命运再一次插手进来,这一次采用的形式是一则商业学堂的广告。另外一位朋友劝告我,说国家现在处于经济战争之中,当前最需要的人才是能建设国家经济的经济学家,它的议论打动了我,我又向这个商业中学付了1元钱的广告。有一天我读到一则把一所公立高级商业学校说的天花乱坠的广告。它是政府办的,设有很多课程,而且我听说它的教员都是非常有才能的人。我决定最好能在那里学成一个商业专家,就付了1元提名,然后把我的决定写信告诉父亲。他听了很高兴,我父亲很容易理解善于经商的好处。我进了这个学校,但是只住了1个月。”

“Fate again intervened in the form of an advertisement for acommercial school. Another friend counseled me that the country wasin economic war, and that what was most needed were economists whocould build up the nation's economy. His argument prevailed and Ispent another dollar to register in this commercial middle school.I actually enrolled there and was accepted. Meanwhile, however, Icontinued to read advertisements, and one day I read one describingthe charms of a higher commercial public school. It was operated byteh government, it offered a wide curriculum, and I heard that itsinstructors were very able men. I decided it would be better tobecome a commercial expert there, paid my dollar and registered,then wrote my father of my decision. He was pleased. My fatherreadily appreciated the advantages of commercial cleverness. Ientered this school and remained ——for one month.”

“我发现在这所新学校上学的困难时大多数课程都用英语讲授。我和其他学生一样,不懂得什么英语,说实在的,除了字母就不知道什么了,另外一个困难是学校没有英语教师,这种情况使我感到很讨厌,所以到月底就退学了,继续留心报上的广告。”

“The trouble with my new school. I discovered, was that most ofthe courses were taught in English, and, in common with otherstudents, I knew little English; indeed, scarcely more than thealphabet. An additional handicap was that the school provided noEnglish teacher. Disgusted with this situation, I withdrew from theinstitution at the end of themonth and continued my perusal of theadvertisements.”

“我下一个尝试上学的地方是省立第一中学。我花1块钱报了名,参加了入学考试,发榜时名列第一,这个学校很大,有许多学生,毕业生也不少。那里的一个国文教员对我帮助很大,他因为我有文学爱好而愿意接近我,这位教员借给我一部《御批通鉴辑览》,其中有乾隆的上谕和御批。”

“My next scholastic adventure was in the First Provincial MiddleSchool. I registered for a dollar, took the entrance examination,and passed at the head of the list of candidates. It was a bigschool, with mangy students, and its graduates were numerous. AChinese teacher there helped me very much; he was attracted to mebecause of my literary tendency. This teacher lent me a book calledthe Yu-pi-Tung-chien, which contained imperial edicts and critiquesby Ch'ien Lung.”

“大致就在这个时候,长沙的一个政府火药库发生爆炸,引起大火。我们学生却感到很有趣,成吨的签单炮弹爆炸着,火药燃烧成为一片烈焰,比起放爆竹要好看的多了。过了一个月左右,谭延闿被袁世凯赶走,袁世凯控制了民国的政局,开始筹备登基。”

“About this time a government magazine exploded in Changsha.There was a huge fire, and we students found it very omterestomg.Tons of bullets and shells exploded, and gunpowder made an intenseblaze. It was better than firecrackers. About a month later T'anYen-k'ai was driven out by Yuan Shi-k'ai, who now had control ofthe political machinery of the Republic. T'ang Hsiang-ming replacedT'an Yen-k'ai and he set about making arrangements for Yuan'senthronement. ”

“我不喜欢第一中学,它的课程有限,校规也是人反感,我读了《御批通鉴辑览》以后,得出结论,还不如自学更好。我在校6个月就退学了,定了一个自修计划,每天到湖南省立图书馆去看书,我非常认真地执行,持之以恒。我这样度过了半年的时间,我认为对我非常有价值,每天早晨图书馆一开门我就进去,中午只停下来买两块米糕吃,这就是我的每天的午饭,我天天在图书馆读到关门才出来。”

“I did not like the First Middle School. Its curriculum waslimited and its regulations were objectinable. After readingYupiTungchien I had also come to the conclusion that it would bebetter for me to read and study alone. After six months I left theschool and arranged a schedule of education of my own, whichconsisted of reading every day in the Hunan Provincial Library. Iwas very regular and conscientious about it, and the half-year Ispent inthis way I consider to have been extremely valuable to me.I went to the library in the morning when it opened. At noon Ipaused  only long enough to buy and eat two ricecakes, which were my daily lunch. I stayed in the library everyday  reading until it closed.”

“在这段自修期间,我读了许多的书,学习了世界地理和世界历史,我在那里第一次看到一幅世界地图,怀着很大的兴趣研究了它。我读了亚当·斯密的《国富论》,达尔文的《物种起源》和约翰穆勒的一部关于伦理学的书。我读了卢梭的著作,斯宾塞的《逻辑》和孟德斯鸠写的一本关于法律的书。我在认真研究读俄、美、英、法等国历史地理的同时,也阅读诗歌、小说和古希腊的故事。”

“During this period of self-education I read many books, studiedworld geography and world history. There for the first time I sawand studied with great interest a map of the world. I read AdamSmith's The Wealth of Nations, and Darwin's Origin of Species, anda book on ethics by John Stuart Mill. I read the works of Rousseau,Spencer's Logic, and a book on law written by Montesquieu. I mixedpoetry and romances, and the tales of ancient Greece, with seriousstudy of history and geography of Russia, America, England, France,and other countries.”


李小白的慢时光

在长沙的日子/DaysInChangSha(三)

“听了这次演讲以后四五天,我决心参加黎元洪的革命军。我决定同其他几位朋友到汉口去,我们从同学那里筹到了一些钱。听说汉口的街道很湿,必须穿雨鞋,于是我到了一个驻扎在城外的军队里的朋友那里借鞋。我被防守的卫兵拦住了。那个地方显得非常紧张。士兵们第一次领到子弹,他们正蜂拥在街上。”

“Four of five days after hearing this speech I determined tojoin the revolutionary army of Li Yuan-hung. I decided to go toHankow with several other friends, and...

“听了这次演讲以后四五天,我决心参加黎元洪的革命军。我决定同其他几位朋友到汉口去,我们从同学那里筹到了一些钱。听说汉口的街道很湿,必须穿雨鞋,于是我到了一个驻扎在城外的军队里的朋友那里借鞋。我被防守的卫兵拦住了。那个地方显得非常紧张。士兵们第一次领到子弹,他们正蜂拥在街上。”

“Four of five days after hearing this speech I determined tojoin the revolutionary army of Li Yuan-hung. I decided to go toHankow with several other friends, and we collected some money fromour classmates. Having heard that the streets of Hankow were verywet, and that it was necessary to wear rain shoes, I went to borrowsome from a friend in th army, who was quartered outside the city.I was stoped by the garrison guards. T he place had become beryactive, the sloldiers had for the first time been furnished withbullets, and they wre pouring into the streets.”

“起义军当时正沿着粤汉路逼近长沙,战斗已经打响。在长沙成为外已经打了一个打仗。同时,城里面也发生起义,各个城门都被中国工人攻占了。我穿过一个城门,回到城里,进城后我就站在一个白色的旗子,上面写着‘汉’字。我回到学校,发现它已经由军队守卫了。”

“Rebels were approaching the city along the Canto=Hankowrailway,and fighting had begun. A big battle occurred outside thecity walls of Changsha. There was at the same time an insurrectionwithin the city, and the gates were stormed and taken by Chineselaboers. Through one of the gates I re-entered the city. Then Istood on a high place and watched the battle, until at last I sawthe Han flag rasied over the yamen. It was a white banner with thecharacter Han in it. I returned to my school, to find it undermilitary guard. ”



“On the following day,  a tutu government wasorganized. Two prominent members of the Ke Lao Hui[Elder BrotherSociety] were made tutu  and vice-tutu. These wereChiao Ta-feng and Chen Tso-hing, respectively. The new governmentwas established in the former buildings of the provincial advisoryitself was abolished. Among the Manchu documents found by therevolutionaries were some copies of a petition begging for theopening of parliament. The original had benn written in blood byHsu T'eh-li, who is now commisssioner of education in the SovietGovernment. Hsu had cut off the end of his finger, as a thatparliament be opened , I bid farewell[to hte provincial delegatesto Pedking] by cutting my finger.”


“新都督和副都督在职不久。他们不是坏人,而且有些革命要求。但他们很穷,代表被压迫者的利益,地主和商人都对他们不满,过了没有几天,我去拜访一个朋友的时候,看见了他们已经布尸街头。原来代表湖南地主和军阀的谭延闿组织了一次叛乱推翻了他们。”

“The new tutu and vice-tutu not last long .They were not badmen, and had some revolutionary intentions, but they were poor andrepresented the interests of the oppressed. The landlords andmerchants were dissatiffied with them. Not many days later, when Iwent to call on a friend, I saw their corpses lying in the street.T'an Yen-k'ai had organized a revolt against them, asrepresentative of the Hunan landlords and militarists.”


“这时,有许多学生投军。一支学生军已经组织起来,在这些学生里面有唐生智,我不喜欢这支学生军,我认为它的基础太复杂了,我决定参加正规军,为完成革命尽力。那时清帝还没有退位,还要经过一个时期的斗争。”

“Many students were now joining the army. A student army hadbeen organized and among these students was T'ang Sheng-chih. I didnot like the student army;   Iconsidered the basis of it too confused. I decided to join theregular army instead, and help complete the revolution. The Ch'ingEmperor had not yet abdicated, and there was a period ofstruggle.”

“我的军饷是每月7元——不过,这比我现在在红军所得的要多了。在这7元之中,我每月伙食用去两元,我还得花钱买水。士兵用水必须到城外去挑,但我是一个学生,不屑挑水,只好向挑夫买水。剩下的饷银,我都用在订报纸上,贪读不厌。当时鼓吹革命的报纸中有《湘江日报》,里面讨论到社会主义,我就是从那里第一次知道社会主义这个名词的。我也同其他学生和士兵讨论社会主义,其实那是只是社会改良主义。我读了江亢虎写的一些关于社会主义以及原理的小册子,我热情地写信给几个同门同学,讨论这个问题,可是只有一位同学回信表示同意。”



“My salary was seven yuan a month——which is more than I get inthe Red Army now, however——and of  this I spenttwo yuan a month on food. I also had to buy water. The soldiers hadto carry water in from outside the city, but I, being a student,could not condescend t o carrying ,and bought it from the waterpeddlers. The rest of my wages were spent on newspapers, of which Ibecame an avid reader. Among journals then dealing with therevolution wa the Hsiang Chiang Jih-pao. Socialism was discussed init, and in these columns I first learned the term. I also discussedsocialism, really social-reformism, with other students andsoldiers. I read some pamphlets written by Kiang K'ang-hu aboutsocialism and its priciples. I wrote enthusiastically to several ofmy classmates on this subject, but only one of them responded inagreement.”


“在我那个班里,有一个湖南矿工和一个铁匠,我非常喜欢他们。其余都是一些庸碌之辈,有一个还是流氓。我另外有劝说两个学生投了军,我同排长和大多数士兵也交上了朋友,因为我能写字,有些书本知识,他们敬佩我的‘大学问’。我可以帮助他们写信或诸如此类的事情。”

“There was a Hunan miner in my squad, and an ironsmith, whom Iliked very much. The rest were mediocre, and one was a rascal. Ipersuaded two more students to join the army, and came to be onfriendly terms with the platoon commander and most of the soldiers.I could help by writing letters for them or in other suchways.”

“革命这时还没有定局,清朝还没有完全放弃政权,而民国党内部却发生了争夺领导权的斗争,湖南有人说战事不可避免要再起。有好几支军队组织起来反对清朝,反对袁世凯。湘军就是其中之一。可是,正当湘军准备采取行动的时候,孙中山和袁世凯达成了和议,预定的战争取消了,南北‘统一’了,南京政府解散了。我以为革命已经结束,便退出军队,决定回到我的书本子上去,我一共当了半年兵。”

“The outcome of the revolution was not yet decided. The Ch'inghad not wholly given up power, and there was a a atruggle withinthe Kuomintang concerning the leadership. It was said in Hunan thatfurther war was inevitable. Several armies were organized againstthe Manchus and against Yuan Shih-K'ai. Among these was the Hunanarmy. But just as the Hunnan were preparing to move into action,Sun Yat-sen and Yuan Shi-K'ai came to an agreement, the scheduledwar was called off, North and South were 'unified' and the NankingGovernment was dissolved. Thinking the revolution was over, Iresigned from the army and decided to return to my books. I hadbeen a soldier for half a year.” 


李小白的慢时光

在长沙的日子/DaysInChangSha(四)

“我那时住在湘乡会馆,许多士兵都住在那里,都是退伍或者被遣散的湘乡人,他们没有工作,也没有什么钱,住在会馆的学生和士兵经常吵架。一天晚上,他们之间的这种敌对爆发成为武斗了,士兵袭击学生,想要杀死他们,我躲到厕所里面去,知道殴斗结束以后才出来。”

“I was the living in a guild house for natives of Hsiang Hsiang district. Many soldiers were there also 'retired' or disbanded men from the district, who had no work to do and...

“我那时住在湘乡会馆,许多士兵都住在那里,都是退伍或者被遣散的湘乡人,他们没有工作,也没有什么钱,住在会馆的学生和士兵经常吵架。一天晚上,他们之间的这种敌对爆发成为武斗了,士兵袭击学生,想要杀死他们,我躲到厕所里面去,知道殴斗结束以后才出来。”

“I was the living in a guild house for natives of Hsiang Hsiang district. Many soldiers were there also 'retired' or disbanded men from the district, who had no work to do and little money. Students and soldiers were alwasys quarreling in the guild house, and one night this hostility between then broke out in physical violence. The soldiers attacked and tried to kill the students. I escaped by fleeing to the toilet, where I hid until the fight was over.”

“那时候我没有钱,家里不肯供养我,除非我进学校读书。由于我在会馆里住不下去了,我开始寻找新的住处。同时,我也在认真思考自己的前途,我差不多已经作出结论,我最合适教书。我又开始留意广告了,这时候湖南师范学校的一则动听的广告,引起我的注意,我津津有味地读着它的优点:不收学费,食宿费低廉。有两个朋友在鼓励我考。他们需要我帮助他们准备入学考试的作文,我把我的打算写信告诉家里,结果得到他们的同意,我替那两位朋友写了作文,为自己写了一篇。三个人最后都被录取——因此,我实际上是考取了三次,那时候我并不认为我为朋友代笔是不道德的行为,这不过是朋友之间的义气。”

“I had no moneythen, my family refusing to support me unless I entered school, and since could no longer live in  the guild house I began looking for a new place to lodge. Meanwhile, I had been thinking seriously of my 'career' and advertisements again. An attractive announcement of the Hunan Normal School now came to my attention, and I read with interest of its advantages: no tuition required, and cheap board and cheap lodging.  Two of my friends were also urging me to enter. They wanted my help in preparing entrance essays. I wrote of my intention to my family  and I received their consent. I composed essarys for my two friends, and wrote one of my own. All were accepted-in reality ,therefore, I was accepted three times. I did not then  think my act of substituting for my friends an immoral one; it was merely a matter of friendship.”

“我在师范学校读了5年书,抵住了后来一切广告的引诱。最后,我居然得到毕业文凭,我在这里——湖南省立第一师范度过的生活中发生了很多事情,我的政治思想在这个时期开始形成。我也是在这里获得社会行动的初步经验。”

“I was a student in the normal school for five years, and managed to resist the appeals of all future advertising. Finally I actually got my degree. Incidents in my life here, in the Hunan Provincial First Normal [Teachers' Training] School, were many, and during this period my political ideas began to take shape. Here also I acquired my first experiences in social action. ”

“这所新学校有很多校规,我赞成的极少。例如,我反对自然科学列为必修课。我想专修社会科学,我对自然科学并不特别感兴趣,我没有好好去学,所以我多数这些课程我得到的分数很差,我尤其讨厌一门静物写生必修课。我认为这门课极端无聊。我往往想出最简单的东西来画,草草画完就离开教室。记得有一次我画了一条直线,上面加上半圆,表示‘半壁见海日’。又有一次,在图画考试,我画了一个椭圆形就算了事,说这是鸡蛋。结果图画课得了40分,不及格。幸亏我的社会科学各课得到的分数都很高,这样就扯平了其他课程的坏分数。”

“There were many regulations in the new school and I agreed with very few of them. For one thing, I was opposed  to the required  courses in natural science. I wanted to specialize in social sciences. Natural sciences did not especially interest of all I hated a compulsory course in still-life drawing. I thought it extremely stupid. I used to think of the simplest subjects possible to draw, finish up quickly and leave the class. I  remember once, drawing a picture of the 'half-sun, half-rock' which I represented by a straight line with a  semicircle over it. Another itme during an examination in drawing I contented myself with making anoval. I called it an egg. I got 40 in drawing, and failed. Fortunately my marks in social sciences were all excellent, and they balanced my poor grades in these other classes.”

“学校里有一个国文教员,学生给他起了‘袁大胡子’的绰号。他嘲笑我的作文,说它是新闻记者的手笔,他看不起我视为楷模的梁启超,认为他半通不通,我只得改变文风,我专研韩愈的文章,学会了古文文体,所以,幸亏袁大胡子,今天我在必要时仍然能够写出一篇过得去的文言文。”

“A Chinese teacher here, whom the studens nicknamed 'Yuan the Big Beard' ridiculed my writing and called it the work of a journalist. He despised Liang Chi-chao, who had been my model, and considered him half-literate. I was obliged to alter my style. I studied the writings of Han Yu, and mastered the old Classical phraseology. Thanks to Yuan the Big Beard, therefore, I can today still turn out a passable Classical essay if required.”

“给我印象最深的教员是杨昌济,他是从英国回来的留学生,后来我同他的生活有密切的关系。他教授伦理学, 是一个唯心主义者,一个道德高尚的人。他对自己的伦理学有强烈的信仰,努力鼓励学生立志做有益于社会的正大光明的人。我在他的影响之下,读了蔡元培翻译的一本伦理学的书。我收到这本书的启发,写了一篇题为《心之力》的文章。那时我是一个唯心主义者,杨昌济老师从他的唯心主义观点出发,高度赞赏我的那篇文章。他给我100分。”

“The teacher who made the strongest impression on me was YangChangji, a returned student from England, with whose life I was later to become intimately related. He taught ethics, he was an idealist and a man of high moral character. He believed in his ethics very strongly and tried to imbue his studentgs with the desire to become just, moral, virtuous men, useful in society. Under his influence I read a book on ethics translated by Ts'ai Yuan-pei and was inspired to write an essay which I entitled 'The Energy of the Mind.' I was then an idealist and my essay was highly praised by Professor Yang Changchi, from his idealist viewpoint. He gave me a mark of 100 for it.”

“一位姓唐的教员常常给我一些旧《民报》看,我读得很有兴趣。从那上面我知道了同盟会的活动和纲领,有一天我读到一份《民报》,上面刊载两个中国学生旅行全国的故事,他们一直走到西藏边境的打箭炉。这件事给我很大的鼓舞。我想效法他们的榜样,可是我没有钱,所以我想应当先在湖南旅行试一试。”

“A teacher named T'ang used to give me old copies of Min Pao[People's Journal] , and I read them with keen interest. I learned from them about the activities and program of the T'ung Meng Hui. One day I read a copy of the Min Pao containing a story about two Chinese students who were traveling across China and had reached Tatsienlu, on the edge of Tibet. This inspired me very much. I wanted to follow their example; but I had no money, and thought I should first try out traveling in Hunan.”

“第二年夏天,我开始在湖南徒步旅行,游历了5个县。一个名叫萧瑜的学生与我同行。我们走遍了这5个县,没有花一个铜板,农民们给我们吃的,给我们地方睡觉,所到之处,都受到款待和欢迎。和我一同旅行的萧瑜这个家伙,后来在南京易培基手下当国民党的官。易培基原始湖南师范的校长,后来成了南京的大官,他给萧瑜谋道北京故宫博物馆院管理的职位。萧瑜倒卖了博物馆里一些最珍贵的文物,于1934年卷款潜逃。”

“The next summer I set out across the province by foot, and journeyed through five counties. I was accompanied by a studnet named Hsiao Yu. We walked through these five counties without using a single copper. The peasants fed us and gave us a place to sleep; wherever we went we were kindly treated and wekcined, This fellow, Hsiao Yu, with whom I traveled, later became a Kuomintang official in Nanking ,under Yi Pei-ji, who was then president of Hunan Normal School. Yi Pei-chi became a high officialo at Nanking and had Hsiao Yu appointed to the office of custodian of the Peking Palace Museum. Hsiao sold some of the most valuable treasures in the museum and absconded with the funds in 1934.”

















 













































李小白的慢时光
红星照耀中国/Red Star...

红星照耀中国/Red Star Over China

在长沙的日子/Days in Changsha( 一)

“我开始向往到长沙去。长沙是一个大城市,是湖南省的省会,离我家120里。听说这个城市很大,有许许多多的人,不少的学堂,抚台衙门也在那里。总之,那时个很繁华的地方。那时我非常想到那里去,进一所专为湘乡人办的中学。那年冬天,我请我的一位高小教员介绍我去,他同意了。我步行到长沙去,极其兴奋,一面又担心不让我入学,我几乎不敢希望真能进这所有名的学堂,出乎意料,我居然没有遇到困难就入学了,但是,政局迅速发生变化,我后来在那里只呆了半年。”

“I began to long to...

红星照耀中国/Red Star Over China

在长沙的日子/Days in Changsha( 一)

“我开始向往到长沙去。长沙是一个大城市,是湖南省的省会,离我家120里。听说这个城市很大,有许许多多的人,不少的学堂,抚台衙门也在那里。总之,那时个很繁华的地方。那时我非常想到那里去,进一所专为湘乡人办的中学。那年冬天,我请我的一位高小教员介绍我去,他同意了。我步行到长沙去,极其兴奋,一面又担心不让我入学,我几乎不敢希望真能进这所有名的学堂,出乎意料,我居然没有遇到困难就入学了,但是,政局迅速发生变化,我后来在那里只呆了半年。”

“I began to long to go to Changsha, the great city, the capital of the province, which was 120 li from my home. It was said that this city was very big, contained many, many people, numerous schools, and the yamen of the governor. It was a magnificent place altogether. I wanted very much to go there at this time, and enter the middle school for Hsiang Hsiang people. That winter I asked one of my teachers in the higher primary school to introduce me winter I asked one of my teachers in the higher primary school to introduce me there. The teacher agreed, and I walked to Chang-sha, exceedingly excited, half fearing that I would be refused entrance, hardly daring to hope that  could actually become a student in this great school. To my astonishment, I was admitted without difficulty. But political events were moving rapidly and I was to remain there only half a year.  ”

“在长沙,我第一次看到报纸——《民力报》,那是一份民族革命的报纸,刊载着一个名叫黄兴的湖南人领导的广州反清起义和七十二烈士殉难的消息。我深受这篇报道的感动,发现《民立报》充满了激动人心的材料。这份报纸是于右任主编的,他后来成为国明党的一个有名的领导人,这个时候,我也听说了孙中山这个人和同盟会的纲领。当时全国处于第一次革命的前夜,我激动之下写了一篇文章贴在学堂的墙上。这是我第一次发表政见,思想还有些糊涂。我还没有放弃对康有为、梁启超的钦佩。我并不清楚他们之间的差别。所以我在文章里踢出,把孙中山从日本请回来当新政府的总统,康有为当国务总理,梁启超当外交部长。”

“In Changsha I read my first newspaper, Min-li-pao[People's Strength], a nationalist revolutionary journal which told of the  Canton Uprising against the Manchu Dynasty and the death of the Seventy-two Heroes, under ther leadership of a Hunanese named Huang Hsing. I was most impressed with this story and found the Min-li-pao full of stimulating material. It was edited by Yu Yu-jen, who later became a famous leader of the Kuomintang. I learned also of Sun Yat-sen at this time, and of the program of the T'ung Meng Hui. The country was onthe eve of the First Revolution . I was so agitated that I wrote an article, which I posted on the school wall. It was my first expression of a political opinion, and it was somewhat muddled. I had not yet given up my admiration of K'ang Yu-wei and Liang Ch'i-chao. I did not clearly understand the differences between them. Therefore in my article I advocated that Sun Yat-sen must be called back from Japan to become president of the new government, that K'ang Yu-wei be made premier,and Liang Chi-chao minister of foregin affair!”

“由于修筑川汉铁路而兴起了反对外国投资的运动。立宪成为广大人民的要求,皇帝的答复只是下旨设立一个资政院。在我的学堂里,同学们越来越激动。为了发泄排满情绪,他们反对留辫子。我的一个朋友和我剪去了我们的辫子,但是,其他一些相约剪辫子的人,后来却不守信用,于是我的朋友和我就出其不意剪了他们的辫子,总共有十几个人成为了我们剪刀下的牺牲品。就这样, 在一个很短的时间里,我从讥笑假洋鬼子的假辫子发展到主张全部取消辫子了。政治思想是怎样能够改变一个人的观点啊。”

“The anti-foreign-capital movement began in connection with the building of the Szechuan-Hankow railway, and a popular demand for a parliament became widespread. In reply to it the Emperor decreed merely that an advisory council be demonstrated  their anti-Manchu sentiments by a rebellion against the pigtail. One friend and I clipped off our pigtails, but others, who had promised to do so, afterward failed to keep their word. My friend and I therefore assaulted them insecret and forcibly removed their word. My friend and I therefore assaulted them in our shears. Thus in a short space of time I had progressed from ridiculing the False Foreign Devil's imitation queue to demanding the general abolition of queues. How a political idea can change a point of view. ”

“在剪辫子事件上,我和一个在政法学堂的朋友发生了争论,双方就这个问题提出了相反的理论,这个政法学生引经据典来论证自己的看法,说身体发肤受之父母,不可毁伤。但是,我自己和反对蓄辫子的人,站在反清的政治立场上,提出了一种相反的理论,驳得他哑口无言。”

“I got into a dispute with a friend in a law school over the pigtail episode, and we each advancedc opposing theories on the subject. The law student held that the body, skin, hair, and nails are heritages from one's parents and must not be destroyed, quoting the Classics to clinch his argument. But I myself and the antipigtailers developed a countertheory, on an  anti-Manchu political basis, and thoroughly silenced him.”

“黎元洪领导的武昌起义失败发生以后,湖南宣布了戒严令。政局迅速改观。有一天,一个革命党人得到校长的许可,到中学来做了一次激动人心的演讲,当场有七八个学生站起来,支持他的主张,强烈抨击清朝政府,号召大家行动起来,建立民国。会上人人聚精会神地听着。那个革命的演说家是黎元洪的下属一个官员,他想兴奋的学生演说的时候,会场里鸦雀无声。”

“After the Wuhan Uprsing occurred, led by Li Yuan-hong, martial law was declared in Hunan. The political scene rapidly altered. One day a revolutionary appeared in the middle school and made a stirring speech, with the permission of the principal. Seven or eight students arose in the assembly and supported him with vigorous denunciation of the Manchus, and calls for action to establish the Republic. Everyone listened with complete attention. Not a sound was heard as the orator of the revolution, one of the officials of Li Yuan-hong, spoke before the excited students.”

李小白的慢时光
红星照耀中国/Red Star...

红星照耀中国/Red Star Over China

童年/Childhood( 四)

“我随表兄到那所学堂报了名,我说我是湘乡人,因为这所学堂只收湘乡人,后来,我发现这所学堂招收各地学生,我就改用湘潭的原来籍贯。我缴纳了1400个铜板,作为5个月的膳宿费用和学杂费,我父亲最后也同意我进这所学堂了,因为朋友们对他说,这种‘先进的’教育可以增加我赚钱的本领。这是我第一次离到家50里以外的地方去,那时我16岁。”

“I went to the school with my cousin and registered. I claimed  to be a Hsiang Hsiang...

红星照耀中国/Red Star Over China

童年/Childhood( 四)

“我随表兄到那所学堂报了名,我说我是湘乡人,因为这所学堂只收湘乡人,后来,我发现这所学堂招收各地学生,我就改用湘潭的原来籍贯。我缴纳了1400个铜板,作为5个月的膳宿费用和学杂费,我父亲最后也同意我进这所学堂了,因为朋友们对他说,这种‘先进的’教育可以增加我赚钱的本领。这是我第一次离到家50里以外的地方去,那时我16岁。”

“I went to the school with my cousin and registered. I claimed  to be a Hsiang Hsiang man, beacuse I understood that the school was open only to natives of Hsiang Hsiang. Later on I took my true status as a Hsiang T'an native when I discovered that the place was open was open to all. I paid 1,400 coppers here for five months' board, lodging, and all materials necessary for study. My father finally agreed to let me enter, after friends had argued to him that this 'advanced' education would increase my earning powers. This was the first time I had been as far away from home as fifty li. I was sixteen years old.”

"在这所新学堂里,我能学到自然科学和西学的新学科。另外一件事值得一提,教员中有一个日本留学生,他戴着假辫子,很容易看出他的辫子是假的。大家都笑他,叫他‘假洋鬼子’。"

“In the new school I could study natural science and new subjects of Western learning. Another notable thing was that one of the teachers was a returned student from Japan, and he wore a false queue. It was quite easy to tell that his queue was false. Everyone laughed at him and called him the 'False Foreign Devil'.”

“我以前从没有见过这么多孩子聚在一起,他们大多数是地主子弟,穿衣讲究;很少农民供得起子弟上这样的学堂。我的穿着比别人都寒酸,我只有一套像样的短衫裤。学生是不穿大褂的,只有教员才穿,而洋服只有‘洋鬼子’才穿,我平常总是传一身破旧的衣衫,许多阔学生因此看不起我。可是在他们当中我也有朋友,特别有两个是我的好同志。其中一个现在是作家,住在苏联。(萧三)”

“I had never before seen so many children together. Most of them were sons of landlords, wearing expnesive clothes; very few peasants could afford to send their children to such a school. I was more poorly dressed than the others. I owned only one decent coat-and-trousers suit. Gowns were not worn by students, but only by the teachers, and none but 'foreign devils' wore foreign clothes. Many of the richer students despised me becasue usually I was wearing my ragged coat and trousers. However, among them I had friends, and two especially were my good comrades. One of those is now a writer, living in Soviet Russia.”

“人家不喜欢我也因为我不是湘乡人,在这个学堂,是不是湘乡本地人是非常重要的,而且还要看是湘乡哪一乡来的,湘乡有上、中、下三里,而上、下两里,纯粹出于地域观念而殴斗不休,彼此势不两立。我在这场斗争中采取中立的态度,因为我根本不是本地人,结果三派都看不起我。我精神上感到很压抑。”

“I was also dislike because I was not a native of Hsiang Hsiang. It was very important to be a native of Hsiang Hsiang and also important to be from a certain district of Hsiang Hsiang. There was an upper, lower, and middle district, and lower and upper were continually fighting, purely on a regional basis. Neither could become reconciled to the existence of the other. I took a neutral position in this war, because I was not a native at all. consequently all three factions despised me. I felt spiritually very depressed.”

“我在这个学堂里有了不少的进步,教员都喜欢我,尤其是那个教古文的教员,因为我写得一手好古文,但是我无心读古文,当时我正在读表兄送给我的两本书,讲的是康有为的变法运动,一本是《新民丛报》,是梁启超编的。这两本书我读了又读,直到可以背出来。我崇拜康有为和梁启超,也非常感谢我的表兄,当时我以为他是很进步的,但是后来他变成了反革命,变成了一个豪绅,在1925年1927年的大革命中参加了反动派。”

“I made good progress at this school. The teachers liked me, especially those who taught the Classics, beacuse I wrote good essays in the Classical manner. But my mind was not on the Classics. I was reading two books sent to me by my cousin, telling of the reform movement of K'ang Yu-Wei. One was by Liang Ch'i-ch'ao, editor of the Hsin-min Ts'ung-pao[New People's Miscellany]. I read and reread those books until I knew them by heart. I worshiped K'ang Yu-wei and Liang Ch'i-ch'ao, and was very grateful to my cousin, whom I then thought very progressive, but who later became a counterrevolutionary, a member of the gentry, and joined the reactionaries in the period of the Great Revolution of 1925——1927 ”

“许多学生因为假辫子而不喜欢那个‘假洋鬼子’,可是我喜欢听他谈日本的事情,他教音乐和英文,他教的歌中有一首叫做《黄海之战》的日本歌,我还记得里面的一些动人的歌词:

麻雀歌唱

夜莺跳舞

春天里绿色的田野多可爱

石榴花红

杨柳叶绿

展现一幅新图画

“Many of the students disliked  the False Foregin Devil becasue of his inhuman queue, but I liked hearing him talk about Japan. He taught music and English. One of his songs was Japanese and was called 'The Battle on the Yellow Sea' I still remember some charming words from it:

The sparrow sings

The nightgale dances

And the green fields are lovely in the spring

The willows are green-leaved

And there is a new picture

“这首歌是歌颂日本战胜俄国的,我当时从这首歌里了解到并且感觉到日本的美,也感觉到一些日本的骄傲和强大,我没有想到它还是一个野蛮的日本——我们今天所知道的日本”

“At that time I knew and felt the beauty of Janpan, and felt something of her pride and might, in this song of her victory over Russia, I did not think there was also a barbarous Japan——the Japan we know today.”

“我从假洋鬼子那里学到的就这些,我还记得在那个时候第一次听说光绪皇帝和慈禧太后都已经死去——虽然新皇帝宣统【傅仪】已经在朝两年了。那时我还不是一个反对帝制派,说实在的,我认为皇帝像大多数官吏一样都是诚实、善良和聪明的人。他们不过需要康有为帮助他们变法罢了,中国古代帝王尧舜禹、秦皇汉武的事迹使我向往,我读了许多关于他们的书,同时我也学了一些外国历史和地理,在一篇讲美国革命的文章里,我第一次听到美国这个国家,里面有这样一句话,‘华盛顿8年苦战最终获得胜利建立国家’,在一部叫做《世界英杰传》的书里,我也读到了拿破仑、俄国叶卡捷琳娜女皇、彼得大帝、惠灵顿、格莱斯顿、卢梭、孟德斯鸠和林肯。”

“This is all I learned from the False Foreign Devil. I recall also that at about this time I first heard that the Emperor and TzuHsi, the Empress Dowager, were both dead, although the new Emperor, Hsuan T'ung[P'u Yi], had already been ruling for two years. I was not yet an antimonarchist; indeed, I considered the Emperor as well as most officials to be honest,  good, and clever men. They only needed the help of K'ang Yu-wei's reforms. I was fascinated by accounts of the rulers of ancient China: Yao, Shun, Yu, Ch'in Shih Huang Ti, and Han WuTi, and read many books about them. I also learned something of foreign history at this time, and of geography. I had first heard of America in an article which told of the American Revolution and contained a sentence like this: 'After eight years of difficult war, Washington won victory and bulit up his nation. 'After eight years of difficult war, Washington won victory and built up his nation.' In a book called Great Heroes of the World, I read also of Napoleon, Catherine of Russia, Peter the Great, Wellington, Gladstone, Rousseau, Montesquieu, and Lincoln.”

李小白的慢时光

童年/Childhood( 三)


 “《盛世危言》激起我想要恢复学业的愿望。我也逐渐讨厌田间劳动。我父亲是反对这件事的。为此我们发生过争吵,最后我从家里跑了,我到一个失业的法科学生家里,在那里读了半年书,以后我又在一位老先生那里读了更多的经书,也读了许多时论和一些新书。”

“Sheng-shilh Wei-yan[Words of Warning] stimulated in me a desire to resume my studies. I had also become disgusted with my labor on the farm. My father naturally opposed me....


 “《盛世危言》激起我想要恢复学业的愿望。我也逐渐讨厌田间劳动。我父亲是反对这件事的。为此我们发生过争吵,最后我从家里跑了,我到一个失业的法科学生家里,在那里读了半年书,以后我又在一位老先生那里读了更多的经书,也读了许多时论和一些新书。”

“Sheng-shilh Wei-yan[Words of Warning] stimulated in me a desire to resume my studies. I had also become disgusted with my labor on the farm. My father naturally opposed me. We quarreled about it, and finally I ran away from home. I went to the home of an unemployed law student, and there I studied  for half a year. After that I studied more of the Classics under an old chinese scholar, and also read many contemporary articles and a few books.”

“这时,湖南发生了一件事情,影响了我的一生,在我读书的那个小学堂外边,我们学生看到许多豆商从长沙回来。我们问他们为什么离开长沙,它们告诉我们城里闹了大乱子。”

“At this time an incident occurred in Hunan which influenced my whole life. Outside the little Chinese school where I was studying, we students noticed many bean merchats coming back from Changsha. We asked them why they were all leaving. They told us about a big uprising in the city. ”

“那年发生了严重的饥荒,长沙有成千上万的人饿饭。饥民派了一个代表团到抚台衙门请求救济。但抚台衙门傲慢地回答他们说:‘为什么你们没有吃饭?城里有的是。我就总是吃的饱饱的。’抚台的答复一传到人们的耳朵里,大家都非常愤怒。他们举行了群众大会,并且组织了一次游行示威。他们攻打清朝衙门,砍断了作为官府标志的旗杆,赶走了抚台。这以后,一个姓庄的布政使骑马过来,告诉百姓,说官府要采取措施帮助他们,这个姓庄的说话显然是有诚意的,可是皇上不喜欢他,责他同‘暴民’勾结。结果他被革职,接着来了一个新抚台。马上下令逮捕闹事的领袖,其中许多人被斩首示众,他们的头挂在旗杆上,作为对今后‘叛逆’的警告。”

“There had been a severe famine that year, and in Changsha thousanbds were without food. The starving sent a delegation to the civil governor to beg for relief, but he replied to them haughtily, 'Why haven't you food? There is plenty in the city. I always have enough.'  When the people were told the governor's reply, they became very angry. They held mass meetings and organized a demonstration. They attacked the Manchu yamen, cut down the flagpole, the symbol of office, and drove out the governor. Following this,the Commissioner of Internal Affairs, a man named Chang, came out on his horse and told the people that the government would take measures to help them. Chang was evidently sincere in his promise, but the Emperor disliked him and accused him of having intimate connections with ‘the mob’.He was removed. A new governor arrived, and at once ordered the arrest of the leaders of the uprising. Many of them were  beheaded and their heads displayed on poles as a warning to future 'rebels' .”

"这件事在我们学堂里讨论了许多天,给我留下了深刻的印象。大多数学生都同情'造反者',但它们仅仅是从旁观者的立场出发,它们并不懂这同自己的生活有什么关系。它们单纯的把它看做一件耸听的事而感兴趣。我却始终忘不掉这件事。我觉得造反的人也是像我自己家里人那样的老百姓,对于他们收到的冤屈,我深感不平。”

"This incident was discussed in my school for many days. It made a deep impression on me. Most of the other students sympathized with the ‘insurrectionists’, but only from an observer's point of view. They did not understand that it had any relation to their own lives. They were merely interested in it as an exciting incident. I never fogrot it . I felt that there with the rebels were ordinary people like my own family and I deeply resented the injustice of the treatment given to them."

“不久以后,在韶山,秘密会社哥老会里的人同本地一个地主发生了冲突。这个地主到衙门里去控告它们。因为他有钱有势,所以很容易胜诉。哥老会里的人败诉了,但是他们并没有屈服,他们起来反抗地主和政府,撤到本地一个叫做浏山的山里,在那里建立了一个山寨。官府派兵去攻打他们,那个地主散布谣言说,哥老会举义旗的时候,曾经杀死一个小孩祭旗,起义的领袖是一个叫做彭磨匠的人。最后他们被镇压下去了,彭磨匠被逼逃走,后来终于被捕斩首。但是在学生眼里,他是一个英雄,因为大家都同情这次起义。”

“Not long afterward, in ShaoShan, there was a conflict between members of the Ke Lao Hui, a secret society, and a local landlord. He sued them in court, and as he was a powful landlord he easily bought a decision favorable to himself. The Ke Lao Hui members were defeated. But instead of submitting, they rebelled against the landlord and the goverment and withdrew to a local mountain called Liu Shan, where they built a stronghold. Troops were sent against them and the landlord spread a story that they had sacrificed a child when they raised the banner of revolt. The leader of  the rebels was called P'ang the Millstone Maker. They were finally suppressed and P'ang was forced to flee. He was eventually captured and beheaded. In the eyes of the students, however, he was a hero, for all sympathized with the revolt.”

“第二年青黄不接的时候,我们乡里发生了皇粮,穷人要求富户接济,他们开始了一个叫做‘吃大户’的运动,我父亲是一个米商,尽管本乡缺粮,他仍然运出大批粮食到城里去。其中,有一批被穷苦的村民扣留了,他怒不可遏。我不同情他,可是我又觉得村民们的方法也不对。”

“Next year,  when the new rice was not yet harvested and the winter rice was exhausted, there was a food shortage in our district. The poor demanded help from the rich farmers and they began amovement called 'Eat Rice Without Charge'. My father was a rice merchant and was exporting much grain to the city from our district, despite the shortage. One of his consignments was seized by the poor villagers and his wrath was boundless. I did not sympathize with him. At the same time I thought the villagers' method was wrong .”

"这时还有一件事情对我影响很大,就是本地的一所小学来了一个‘激进派’教师。说他是‘激进派’,是因为他反对佛教,想要去除神佛,他劝人把庙宇改为学堂,大家对他议论纷纷,我钦佩他,赞成他的主张。"

“Another influence on me at this time was the presence in alocal primary shchool of a 'radical' teacher. He was 'radical' because he was opposed to Buddhism and wanted to get rid of the gods. He urged people to convert their temples into schools. He was a widely discussed personality. I admired him and agreed with his views.”

“这些事情接连发生,在我已有反抗意识的年轻心灵上,留下了磨灭不掉的印象,在这个时期,我也开始有了一定的政治觉悟,特别是在读了一本关于瓜分中国的小册子以后,我现在还记得这本小册子的开头一句:‘呜呼,中国将其亡矣’,这本书谈到了日本占领了朝鲜,台湾的经过,谈到了越南、缅甸等地的宗主权的丧失,我读了以后,对国家的前途命运感到沮丧,开始意识到,国家兴亡,匹夫有责。”

“These incidents, occurring close together, made lasting impressions on my young mind, already rebellious. In this period also I began to have a certain amount of political consciousness, especially after I read a pamphlet telling of the desmemberment of China. I remember even now that this pamphlet opened with the sentence:'Alas, China will be subjugated!' It told of Japan's occupation of Korea and Taiwan, of the loss of suzerainty in Indochina, Burma, and elsewhere. After I read this I felt depressed about the futre of my country and began to realize that it was the duty of all the people to help save it.”

“我父亲决定送我到湘潭一家同他有往来的米店去当学徒,起初我并不反对,觉得这也许是有意思的事。可是差不都就在这个时候,我听说有一个非常新式的学堂,于是决心不顾父亲反对,要到那里去上学。学堂设在我母亲娘家住的湘乡县,我的一个表兄就在那里上学,他向我谈了这个新学堂的情况和‘新法教育’的改革。那里不那么注重经书,西方‘新学’教得比较多。教学方法也是很‘激进’的。”

“My father had decided to apprentice me to a rice shop in Hsiang T'an, with which he had connections. I was not opposed to it at first, thinking it minght be interesting. But about this time I heard of an unusual new school and made up my mind to go there, despite my father's opposition. This school was in Hsiang hsien, where my mother's famliy lived. A cousin of mine was a student there and he told me of the new school and of the changing conditions in 'modern' education'. There was less emphasis on the Classics, and more was taught of the 'new knowledge' of the West. The educational methods , also, were quite 'radical'.”

































李小白的慢时光

童年/Childhood(二)


“我父亲读过两年书,认识一些字,足够记账之用。我母亲完全不识字。两个人都是农民家庭出身。我是家里的“读书人”。我熟读经书,可是我不喜欢它们。我爱看的都是中国旧小说,特别是关于造反的故事。我很小的时候,尽管老师严加防范,还是读了《岳飞传》《水浒传》《三国演义》和《西游记》。这位老先生讨厌这些禁书,说它们是坏书。我常常在学堂里读这些书,老师走过来的时候就用一本正经书遮住。大多数同学也都是这样做的。关于这些许多故事,我们比村里的老人知道得还要多些。他们也喜欢这些故事,常常和我们互相讲述。我认为这些书大概对我影响很大,因为是在容易接受的年龄里读的。”

“My father had two years...


“我父亲读过两年书,认识一些字,足够记账之用。我母亲完全不识字。两个人都是农民家庭出身。我是家里的“读书人”。我熟读经书,可是我不喜欢它们。我爱看的都是中国旧小说,特别是关于造反的故事。我很小的时候,尽管老师严加防范,还是读了《岳飞传》《水浒传》《三国演义》和《西游记》。这位老先生讨厌这些禁书,说它们是坏书。我常常在学堂里读这些书,老师走过来的时候就用一本正经书遮住。大多数同学也都是这样做的。关于这些许多故事,我们比村里的老人知道得还要多些。他们也喜欢这些故事,常常和我们互相讲述。我认为这些书大概对我影响很大,因为是在容易接受的年龄里读的。”

“My father had two years of schooling and he could read enough to keep books. My mother was wholly illiterate. Both wre from peasant families. I was the family 'scholar'. I knew the Classics, but disliked them. What I enjoyed were the romances of Old China, and especially stories of rebellions. I read 《the Yo Fei Chronicles》, 《The Water Margin》, 《The Three Kingdoms》and 《Travels in the West》while still very young, and despite the vigilance of my old teacher, who hated these outlawed books and called them wicked. I used to read them in school, covering them up with a Classic when the teacher wakled past. So also did most of my schoolmates. We learned many of the stories almost by heart, and discussed and rediscussed them many times. We knew more of them than us.I believe that perhaps I was much influenced by such books, read at an impressionable age. ”

"我13岁时,终于离开了小学堂,开始整天在地里帮长工干活,白天做一个全劳力的活,晚上替父亲记账。尽管这样,我还是继续读书,如饥似渴地阅读凡是我能够找到的一切书籍,经书除外。这让我父亲很生气,他希望我熟读经书,尤其是在一次打官司时,由于对方在法庭上很恰当的引经据典,使他败诉之后,更是这样子了。我常常在深夜里把我屋子的窗户遮挡起来,好使我父亲看不到灯光。就这样我读了一本《盛世危言》的书籍,这本书我非常喜欢。作者是一位老派改良主义学者,他认为中国之所以弱是因为缺乏西洋的器械——铁路、电话、电报、轮船,所以想把这些东西传到中国。我父亲认为读这些书时浪费时间。他要我读一些像经书那样实用的东西,可以帮助他打赢官司。”

“I finally left the primary school when I was thirteen and began to work long hours on the farm, helping the hired laborer, doing the full labor of a man during the day and at night keeping books for my father. Neverthelss, I succeeded in continuing my reading, devouring everything I could find except the Classics, especially after he was defeated in a lawsuit because of an apt Classical quotation used by his adversary in the Chinese court. I used to cover up the window of my room late at night so that my father would not see the light. In  this way I read a book called Sheng-shiWeiyen[Words of Warning], which I liked very much. The author, one of a number of old reformist scholars, thought that the weakness of China lay in lack of Western appliances——railways, telephones, telegraphs, and steamships——and wated to have them introduced into the country. My father considered such books a waste of time. He wanted me to read something pracitical like the Classics which could help him in winning lawsuits.”

“我继续读中国旧式小说和故事,有一天我突然想到,这些小说有一件事很特别,就是没有种地的农民。所有的人物都是武将、文官和书生,从来没有一个农名做主人公。对于这件事,我纳闷了两年之久,后来我分析小说的内容,我发现它们颂扬全都是武将,人民的统治者,而这些人是不必种田的,因为土地归他们所有和控制,显然让农民替它们种田。”

“I continued to read the old romances and tales of Chinese literature. It occurred to me one day that there was one thing peculiar about such stories, and that was the absence of peasants who tilled the land. All the characters were warriors, officials, or scholars; there was never a peasant hero. I woondered about this for two years, and then I analyzed the content of the stories. I found that they all glorified men of arms, rulers of the people, who did not have to work the land, beacuse they owned and controlled it and evidently made the peasants work it for them.”

"我父亲毛顺生早年和中年都不信神,渴死我母亲信佛却很虔诚,她向自己的孩子灌输宗教信仰,我们都因为父亲不信佛而感到伤心。我9岁的时候,曾经同母亲认为讨论起我父亲不信佛的问题。从那以后,我们好几次想把他转变过来,可是没有成功。他只是骂我们,在他进攻之下,我们只好退让,另想办法,但他总是不愿意和神佛打交道。"

“My father was in his early days, and in middle age, a skeptic, but my mother devoutly worshiped Buddha. She gave her children religious instruction, and we were all saddened that our father was an unbeliever. When I was nine years old  I seriously discussed the problem of my father's lack of piety with my mother. We made many attempts then and later on to convert him, but without  success. He only cused us, and , overwhelmed by his attacks, we withdrew to devise new plans. But he would have nothing to do with the gods. ”

“可是,我看的书,逐渐对我产生了影响,我自己也越来越怀疑了。我母亲开始为我担忧,责备我不热心拜佛,可我父亲后来因为一件事发生了变化。有一天,他出去收账,路上遇到一只老虎,老虎猝然遇见人,慌忙逃跑了。可是我父亲为此感到吃惊,对于他这次虎口脱险的奇迹,他后来想了很多,他开始觉得,是不是得罪了神佛,从此,他开始比较敬佛,有时也烧香。然而,对于我却越来越不信佛,老头儿却不加干涉,他只有处境不顺当的时候,才求神拜佛”

“My reading gradually began to influence me, however; Imyself became more and more skeptical. My mother became concerned about me, and scolded me for my indifference to the requirements of the faith, but my father made no comment. Then one day he went out on the road to collect some money, and onhis way he met a tiger. The tiger was surprised at the encounter and fled at once, but my father was even more astonished and afterwards reflected a good deal on his miraculous escape. He began to wonder if he had not offended the gods. From then on he showed more respect to Buddhism and burned incense now  and then. Yet when my own backsliding grew worse, the old man did not interfere. He prayed to the gods only when he ws in difficulties.  ”

李小白的慢时光

童年/Childhood(一)


“我于1893年生于湖南省湘潭县韶山冲,我的父亲叫毛顺生,我母亲在娘家的名字叫文七妹”

I was born in the village of Shao    Shan,in Hsiang T'an hesin, Huan province, in 1983. My father's name was Mao Shun-sheng, and my mother's maiden name was Wen Qi-mei.

"我父亲原是一个贫农,年轻的时候,因为负债太多只好去当兵,他当了好多年的兵,后来,他回到我出生的村子,做小生意和别的生意,克勤克...


“我于1893年生于湖南省湘潭县韶山冲,我的父亲叫毛顺生,我母亲在娘家的名字叫文七妹”

I was born in the village of Shao    Shan,in Hsiang T'an hesin, Huan province, in 1983. My father's name was Mao Shun-sheng, and my mother's maiden name was Wen Qi-mei.

"我父亲原是一个贫农,年轻的时候,因为负债太多只好去当兵,他当了好多年的兵,后来,他回到我出生的村子,做小生意和别的生意,克勤克俭,积攒下一点钱,买回了他的地"

" My father was a poor peasant and while still young was obliged to join the army because of heavy debts, and by saving carefully and gathering together a little money through small trading and other enterprise he managed to buy back his land."

“我8岁那年开始在本地一个小学堂读书,一直读到13岁,早晚我就到地里干活。白天我读孔夫子的《论语》和《四书》。我的国文教员主张严格对待学生,他态度粗暴严厉,常常打学生,因为这个缘故,我10岁的时候参加逃过学。但我又不敢回家,怕挨打,便朝县城的方向走去,以为县城就在一个山谷里,乱跑了3天后,终于被我的家人找到。我这才知道,我只是来回兜了几个圈子,走了那么久,离家才8里路”

I begin studying in a  local primary school when I was eight and remained there until I was thirteen years old. In the early morning and at night I worked on the farm. During the day I read the Confucian Analects and Four Classics .My Chinese  teacher belonged  to the stern -treatment school. He was harsh and severe, frequently beating his students. Because of that I ran away from the school when I was  ten. I was afraid to return home for fear of receiving a beating there,and set out in the general direction of the city ,which I believed to be in a valley somewhere. I wandered for three days before I was finally found by my family. Then I learned that I had circled round       and round in my travels , and in all my walking had got only about eight li from my home .

“可是,我回到家里以后,想不到情形有点改善,我父亲比以前稍微体谅了一些,老师态度也比较温和一些,我的抗议行动的效果,给了我深刻的印象,这次‘罢课’胜利了”。

After my return to the family , however , to my surprise conditions somewhat improved. My father was slightly more considerate and the teacher was more inclined to moderation .The result of my act of protest impressed me very much. It was a successful 'strike'.

“我刚认识几个字,父亲就让我开始给家里记账,他要我学珠算。既然我父亲坚持,我便在晚上记起账来。他是一个严格的监工,看不得我闲着,如果没有账要记,就叫我出去干农活。他性情暴躁,常常打我的弟弟,他一文钱也不给我们,给我们吃的又是最差的。他每月十五对雇工们特别开恩,给他们鸡蛋下饭吃,可是从来没有肉。对于我,他不给蛋也不给肉。”

" My father wanted me to begin keeping the family books as soon as I had learned a few characters. He wanted me to learn to use the abacus. As my father insisted upon this I began to work at those accounts at night. He was a severe taskmaster. He hated to me idle, and if there were no books to be kept he put me to work at farm tasks. He was a hot-tempered man and frequent beat both me and my borthers. He gave us no money whatever, and the most meager food. On the fifteenth of every month he made a concession to his laborers and gave them eggs with their rice, but never meat. To me he gave neither eggs nor meat. "

"我母亲是个心底善良的妇女,为人慷慨厚道,随时愿意接济别人。她可怜穷人,穷人在荒年前来我家讨饭的时候,她常常给他们饭吃。但是,我父亲在场,她就不能这样做了,我父亲是不赞成施舍的,我家为此多次发生过争吵。"

"My mother was a kind woman, generous and sympathetic, and ever ready to share what she had. She pitied the poor and often gave them rice when they came to ask for it during famines. But she couldn't do so when my father was present. He disapproved of charity. We had many quarrles in my home about this question "

"我家分为两‘党’,一党是我父亲,是执政党。反对党由我、母亲和弟弟组成,有时候连雇工也包括在内。可是在反对党的‘统一战线’内部,存在着意见分歧。我母亲主张间接打击的政策,凡是明显的感情流露或者公开反抗执政党的企图,她都批评,说这不是中国人的做法。"

"There were two ‘parties’ in the family. One was my father, the Ruling Power. The opposition was made up of myself,my mother, my borthers ,and sometimes even the laborer. In the ‘united front’ of the Opposition, however, there was a difference of opinion. My mother advocated a policy of indirect attack. She criticized any overt display of emotion and attempts at open rebellion against the Ruling Power. She said it was not the Chinese way."

"但我到了13岁的时候,发现了一个同我父亲辩论的有效的方法,那就是引经据典来反驳他。父亲喜欢责备我不孝和懒惰。我就引用经书上长者必须仁慈的话来回敬。他指责我懒惰,我就反驳说,年纪大的应该比年纪小的多干活,我父亲年纪比我大两倍多,所以应该多干活。我还宣称:等我到他这样的年纪的时候,我会比他勤快得多。"

"But when I was thirteen I discovered a powerful argument of my own for debating with my father on his own ground, by quoting the Classics. My father’s favorite accusations against me were of unfilial conduct and laziness. I quoted, in exchange,passages from the Classics saying that the elder must be kind and affectionate. Against his charge that I was lazy I used the rebuttal that older people should do more work than younger, that my father was over three times as old as myself, and therefore should domore work. And I declared that when I was his age I would be much more energetic. "

"我的不满增加了,在我们家里,辩证的斗争还在不断地发展着。有一件事我记得特别清楚。大约13岁的时候,有一次父亲请了许多客人到家里,我们俩在客人面前争论起来。父亲当众骂我懒而无用。这激怒了我的自尊心,我骂了他,就离开了家。母亲追上前来,竭力劝我回去,父亲也赶过来,一边骂一边命令我回去。我跑到一个池塘旁边,恫吓说如果他再走进一步,我就要跳下去,在这种情况下,双方都提出停止内战的要求和反要求。父亲坚持要我磕头认错,我表示如果他答应不打我,我可跪一条腿磕头。战争就这样结束了。我从这件事认识到,我如果公然反抗,保卫自己的权利,我父亲就软下来了,可是我如果仍然温顺驯服,他反而大骂我更加厉害。"

"My dissatisfaction increased. The dialectical struggle in our family was constantly developing. One incident I especially remember. When I was about thirteen my father invited many guests to his home, and while they were present a dispute arose between the teo of us. My father denounced me before the whole group, calling me lazy and useless. This infuriated me. I cursed him and left the house. My mother ran after me and tried to persuademe to return. My father also pursued me, cursing at the same time that he commanded me to come back. I reached the edge of

小楔齿蜥晒月亮

阿祖也是表情帝,不愧为精致背景板。
(p10经典表情包)

阿祖也是表情帝,不愧为精致背景板。
(p10经典表情包)

小楔齿蜥晒月亮

9102年了,还是要说,阿祖真的太赞了。

当然,叔叔的角色我都喜欢(aesthetically),出于对他的表演的欣赏。初识是在小睿的时候,被人设和睿津cp吸引的,逐渐过渡到叔叔本人和其他作品。
小睿的人设开初是惊艳的,不过久了多琢磨几下,吸引力就有点减退了。在主角的立场上,小睿是天真可爱忠诚护友还豁达宽容的正义小天使,不想伤害又难免伤害的池鱼之一,惹人喜爱,值得怜惜。但是,纵然叔叔表现很好,不得不说,这人设未免有点单薄和片面,一切向着主角,有点为了主角铺路的意思,这一点就让这个角色的吸引力打了折扣。
另外我不认为小睿很惨,甚至他都算得幸福,至少他顺遂地幸福了二十五年。他不会轻易就一蹶不振或者走...

9102年了,还是要说,阿祖真的太赞了。

当然,叔叔的角色我都喜欢(aesthetically),出于对他的表演的欣赏。初识是在小睿的时候,被人设和睿津cp吸引的,逐渐过渡到叔叔本人和其他作品。
小睿的人设开初是惊艳的,不过久了多琢磨几下,吸引力就有点减退了。在主角的立场上,小睿是天真可爱忠诚护友还豁达宽容的正义小天使,不想伤害又难免伤害的池鱼之一,惹人喜爱,值得怜惜。但是,纵然叔叔表现很好,不得不说,这人设未免有点单薄和片面,一切向着主角,有点为了主角铺路的意思,这一点就让这个角色的吸引力打了折扣。
另外我不认为小睿很惨,甚至他都算得幸福,至少他顺遂地幸福了二十五年。他不会轻易就一蹶不振或者走向歧途。拿他跟萧元启比是不合适的,他得到了很多的爱,后来也仍然拥有亲人和朋友的爱,恢复和原谅对他来说容易太多了。他所得到的值得羡慕了,他失去的却不必那么心疼。

阿祖给我的惊艳要更胜一筹。可能也有刻意注意他的缘故,一上来就看到了。
阿祖是写实历史剧中的一个虚构人物,一般来说这种人物有一小段戏就可以了,贾黄堤也没撑到最后,盒饭还是他给送的,可他自己偏偏撑到了大结局,而且去海那边了!说他不是国府缩影我都不信。(虽然听说华盛顿•吴这名字在话剧里是块砖?)
阿祖其人,前期一直是非常可爱的,待Ed很好,而且心中有大义,把国家人民安危放心上,于公于私都可谓无愧了。当然,他性格中油滑世故的一面也初露端倪,只是不那么明显。直到与Ed竞争爱情的时候,夹杂着立场之争,两人就开始越走越远。立场的分歧,从来没有调和过。
那个时候的阿祖,还坚信着国府能带给中国光明。当他看到它自己已经锈蚀得千疮百孔,他知道凭他一己之力难以挽回。他开始拿钱,很多,不知是拿去填现实的窟窿,还是心里的窟窿。对Ed和Helen的质问,他再也不耐着性子解释,一句“执行命令”敷衍他们敷衍自己。
Ed不在中国的三年里没有多用笔墨细说其间种种,只知最后,国府的统治轰然崩塌,阿祖离开的时候,眼神里有失落和迷茫。
他不是不懂,只是无法背叛,即使是深渊,也义无反顾地跟它下去。
他不是纯善之人,也不是万恶之徒,他只是走自己认定的路,一去不回头。

既然算是半个报道性著作影视化的作品,《红星》采用了旁白的方式。旁白自然是从Ed的角度来表达,但抛开旁白看故事本身,尚属客观,这一点很好。Ed的态度一定程度上表达了对阿祖的定性。因为立场不同,Ed一次又一次地与阿祖争吵乃至分道扬镳,可是最后他仍然挂念这个朋友。一般来说主旋律剧必然预设立场,国府一方最后都难免变成“反派”(如果有个国民党男主,最后必然归顺我党)。可是到最后Ed也没有表达出这种意思。从立场上说,阿祖是“敌人”;可是从故事上,却很难将他定性为“反派”。只能叹惋一句“志同道不和”甚而“道不同不相为谋”了。
有一点点的遗憾是没有解释阿祖的这种执念从何而来。贾黄堤是享乐主义者,坚信所谓大义皆是虚无,是因为亲人的遭遇。阿祖对国府的忠诚甚至在他的正义感之上,却没有说是为什么。(留下脑补空间?)

然后顺便夸一下叔叔,阿祖和小睿差不多是同时期的,但是气质完全不一样,尤其越往后期眼底阴翳越重。还有英语台词真好啊,中国人的Chinglish很难避免,但语言流利,语气妥帖,也贴合人设。叔叔的表演足够convincing。就是有一处,后期突然之间看钱的眼神就不对劲,那种上瘾一样的眼神,真的吓到我了。私以为转变得有点突兀。不过瑕不掩瑜。

P.S.这个tag我纠结了一会儿,还是两个都打了……鉴于叔叔已经改了名字但原来的名字更深入人心啊哈哈。

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