《红星照耀中国》(Red Star Over China)又称《西行漫记》，是美国著名记者埃德加斯诺的不朽名著，一部文笔优美的纪实性很强的报道性作品。
《红星照耀中国》(Red Star Over China)又称《西行漫记》，是美国著名记者埃德加斯诺的不朽名著，一部文笔优美的纪实性很强的报道性作品。
埃德加。斯诺于1928 年来华，曾任欧美几家报社驻华记者、通讯员。1933年4 月到1935年6月，斯诺同时兼任北平燕京大学新闻系讲师。
由于有了这一种思想武装， 使得批青年， 能够对国民党的统治进行群众性的斗争长达十年之久。
长征（红军的成长）/The Long March（四）
"The Red Army now began offensives of its own. In 1932 it fought a great battle at Changchow, in Fukien, and captured the city. In...
"The Red Army now began offensives of its own. In 1932 it fought a great battle at Changchow, in Fukien, and captured the city. In the South it attacked Ch'en Chi-t'ang at Nan Hsiang, and on Chiang Kaishek's front it stormed Lo An,Li Chuan, Chien Ning and T'ai Ning. It attacked but did not occupy Kanchow. From October,1932, onward, and until the beginning of the Long March to the Noverthwest, I myself devoted my time almost exclusively to work with the Soviet Government, leaving the military command to Chu Teh and others."
"In April, 1933, began the fourth and, for Nanking, perhaps the most disastrous of its 'extermination campaigns'. In the first battle of this period two divisions were disarmed and two divisional commanders were captured. The Fifty-ninth Divison was partly destroyed and the Fifty-second was completely destroyed. Thirteen thousand men were captured in this one battle at Ta Lung P'ing and Chiao Hui in Lo An Hsien. The Kuomintang's Eleventh Division, then Chiang Kai shek's best, was next eliminated ,being almost totally diarmed; its commander was seriously wounded. These engagements proved decisive turning points and the Fourth Campaign soon afterwards ended. Chiang Kai-shek at this time wrote to Ch'en Ch'eng, his field commander, that he considered this defeat 'the greatest humiliation' in his life. Ch'en Ch'eng did not favor pushing the campaign. He told people then that in his opinion fighting the Reds was a 'lifetime job' and a 'life sentence'. Reports of this coming to Chiang Kai-shek, he removed Ch'en Ch'eng from the high command."
"For his fifth and last campain, Chiang Kai-shek mobilized nearly one million men and adopted new tactics and strategy. Already, in the Fourth Campaign, Chiang had , on the recommendation of his German advisers, begun the use of the blockhouse and fortifications system. In the Fifth Campaign he placed his entire reliance upon it."
"In this period we made two important errors. The first was the failure to unite with Ts'ai T'ing-k'ai's army in 1933 during the Fukien Rebellion. The second was the adoption of the erroneous strategy of simple defense, abandoning our former tactics of maneuver. It was a serious mistake to meet the vastly superior Nanking forces in positional warfare, at which the Red Army was neither technically nor spirtually at its best."
"As a result of these mistakes, and the new tactics and strategy of Chiang's campaign, combined with the overwhelming numerical and technical superiority of the Kuomintang forces, the Red Army was obliged, in 1934, to seek to change the conditions of its existence in Kiangsi, which were rapidly becoming more unfavorable. Second, the national political situation influenced the decision to move the scene of main operations to the Northwest. Following Japan's invasion of Manchuria and Shanghai, the Soviet Government had ,as early as February, 1932, formally declared war on Japan. This declaration, which could not , of course, be made effective ,owing to the blockade and enciclement of Soviet China by the Kuomintang troops, had been followed by the issuance of a manifesto calling for a united front of all armed forces in China to resist Japanese imperialism. Early in 1933 the Soviet Goverment announced that it would cooperate with any White army on the basis of cessation of civil war and attacks on the soviets and the Red Army, guarantee of civil liberties and democratic rights to the masses, and arming of the people for an anti-Japanese war."
"The Fifth Extermination Campaign began in October, 1933. In January,1934, the Second All-China Congress of Soviets was convened in Juichin, the soviet capital,and a survey of the achievements of revolution took place. Here I gave a long report, and here the Central Soviet Government, as its personnel exists today, was elected. Preparations soon afterwards were made for the Long March. It was begun in October, 1934, just a year after Chiang Kai-shek launched his last campaign---a year of almost constant fighting, struggle and enormous losses on both sides."
"By January, 1935,the main forces of the Red Army reached Tsunyi, in Kweichow. For the next four months the army was almost constantly moving and the most energetic combat and fighting took place. Through many, many difficulties, across the longest and deepest and most dangerous rivers of China, across some of fierce aborigines, through all these natural barriers, and fighting its way past the local troops of Kwangtung, Hunan, Kwangsi, Kweichow, Yunan,Sikang, Szechuan, Kansu, and shensi, the Red Army at last reached northern Shensi in October, 1935, and enlarged its base in China's great Northwest."
"The victorious march of the Red Army, and its triumphant arrival in Kansu and Shensi with its living forces still intact, was due first to the correct leadership of the Communist Party, and second to the great skill, courage, determination,and almost superhuman endurance and revolutionary ardor of the basic cadres of our soviet people. The Communist Party of China was , is ,and will ever be faithful to Marxism-Leninism , and it will continue its struggles against every opportunist tendency. In this determination lies one explanation of its invincibility and the certainty of its final victory."
The statistical recapitulation of the Long March is impressive. It shows that there was an average of almost a skirmish a day, somewhere on the line, while altogether fifteen whole days were devoted to major pitched battles. Out of a total of 368 days en route , 235were consumed in marches by day, and 18 in marchees by night. Of the 100 days of halts-----many of which weredevoted to skirmishes------56 days were spent in northwestrn Szechuan, leaving only 44 days of rest over a distance of about 5,000 miles, or an average of one halt for every 114 miles of marching. The daily stage covered was 71 li, or nearly 24 miles------a phenomenal pace for a great army and its transport to average over some of the most hazardous terrain on earth.
According to data furnished to me by Commander Tso Ch'uan, the Reds crossed eighteen mountain ranges, five of which were perennially snow-capped, and they crossed twenty-four rivers. They passed through twelve different provices, occupied sixty-two cities and towns, and broke through enveloping armies of ten different provincial warloards , besides defeating, eluding, or outmaneuvering the various forces of Central Government troops sent against them. They crossed six different aboriginal districts, and penetrated areas through which no Chinese army had gone for scores of years.
In one sense this mass migration was the biggest armed propaganda tour in history. The Reds passed through provinces populated by more than 200,000,000 people. Between battles and skirmishes, in every town occupied , they called mass meetings, gave theatrical performances, heavily"taxed" the rich, freed many "slaves",preached "liberty, equality, democracy", confiscated the property of the "traitors" and distributed their goods among the poor. Millions of the poor had now seen the Red Army and heard it speak, and were no longer afraid of it. The Reds explained the aims of agrarian revolution and their anti-Janpanese policy. They armed thousands of peasants and left cadres behind to train Red partisans who kept Nanking's troops busy. Many thousands dropped out on the long and heartbreaking march ,but thousands of others------farmers, apprentices, slaves, deserters from the Kuomintang ranks, workers, all the disinherited-------joined in and filled the ranks.
Some day someone will write the full epic of this exciting expedition.
“I began to read advertisements in the papers. Many schools werethen being opened and...
“I began to read advertisements in the papers. Many schools werethen being opened and used this medium to attract new students. Ihad no special standard for judging schools; I did not know exactlywhat I wanted to do. An advertisement for a police school caught myeye and I registered for entrance to it. Before I was examined,however, I read an advertisement of asoap-making school. No tuition was required,board was furnished and a small salary was promised. It was anattractive and inspiring advertisement. It told of the great socialbenefits of soap making, how it would enrich the country and enrichthe people. I changed my mind about the police school and decidedto become a soap maker. I paid my dollar registration fee herealso.”
“Meanwhile a friend of mine had become a law student and heurged me to enter his school. I also read an alluring advetisementof this law school, which promised many wonderful things. Itpromised to teach studens all about law in three years andguaranteed that at the end of htis preiod they would instantlybecome mandarins. My friend kept praising the school to me, untilfinally I wrote to my family, repeated all the promises of theadvertisement, and asked them to send me tuition money. I painted abright picture for them of my future as a jurist and mandarin. ThenI paid a dollar to register in the law school and waited to hearfrom my parents. ”
“Fate again intervened in the form of an advertisement for acommercial school. Another friend counseled me that the country wasin economic war, and that what was most needed were economists whocould build up the nation's economy. His argument prevailed and Ispent another dollar to register in this commercial middle school.I actually enrolled there and was accepted. Meanwhile, however, Icontinued to read advertisements, and one day I read one describingthe charms of a higher commercial public school. It was operated byteh government, it offered a wide curriculum, and I heard that itsinstructors were very able men. I decided it would be better tobecome a commercial expert there, paid my dollar and registered,then wrote my father of my decision. He was pleased. My fatherreadily appreciated the advantages of commercial cleverness. Ientered this school and remained ——for one month.”
“The trouble with my new school. I discovered, was that most ofthe courses were taught in English, and, in common with otherstudents, I knew little English; indeed, scarcely more than thealphabet. An additional handicap was that the school provided noEnglish teacher. Disgusted with this situation, I withdrew from theinstitution at the end of themonth and continued my perusal of theadvertisements.”
“My next scholastic adventure was in the First Provincial MiddleSchool. I registered for a dollar, took the entrance examination,and passed at the head of the list of candidates. It was a bigschool, with mangy students, and its graduates were numerous. AChinese teacher there helped me very much; he was attracted to mebecause of my literary tendency. This teacher lent me a book calledthe Yu-pi-Tung-chien, which contained imperial edicts and critiquesby Ch'ien Lung.”
“About this time a government magazine exploded in Changsha.There was a huge fire, and we students found it very omterestomg.Tons of bullets and shells exploded, and gunpowder made an intenseblaze. It was better than firecrackers. About a month later T'anYen-k'ai was driven out by Yuan Shi-k'ai, who now had control ofthe political machinery of the Republic. T'ang Hsiang-ming replacedT'an Yen-k'ai and he set about making arrangements for Yuan'senthronement. ”
“I did not like the First Middle School. Its curriculum waslimited and its regulations were objectinable. After readingYupiTungchien I had also come to the conclusion that it would bebetter for me to read and study alone. After six months I left theschool and arranged a schedule of education of my own, whichconsisted of reading every day in the Hunan Provincial Library. Iwas very regular and conscientious about it, and the half-year Ispent inthis way I consider to have been extremely valuable to me.I went to the library in the morning when it opened. At noon Ipaused only long enough to buy and eat two ricecakes, which were my daily lunch. I stayed in the library everyday reading until it closed.”
“在这段自修期间，我读了许多的书，学习了世界地理和世界历史，我在那里第一次看到一幅世界地图，怀着很大的兴趣研究了它。我读了亚当·斯密的《国富论》，达尔文的《物种起源》和约翰穆勒的一部关于伦理学的书。我读了卢梭的著作，斯宾塞的《逻辑》和孟德斯鸠写的一本关于法律的书。我在认真研究读俄、美、英、法等国历史地理的同时，也阅读诗歌、小说和古希腊的故事。”“During this period of self-education I read many books, studiedworld geography and world history. There for the first time I sawand studied with great interest a map of the world. I read AdamSmith's The Wealth of Nations, and Darwin's Origin of Species, anda book on ethics by John Stuart Mill. I read the works of Rousseau,Spencer's Logic, and a book on law written by Montesquieu. I mixedpoetry and romances, and the tales of ancient Greece, with seriousstudy of history and geography of Russia, America, England, France,and other countries.”
“Four of five days after hearing this speech I determined tojoin the revolutionary army of Li Yuan-hung. I decided to go toHankow with several other friends, and...
“Four of five days after hearing this speech I determined tojoin the revolutionary army of Li Yuan-hung. I decided to go toHankow with several other friends, and we collected some money fromour classmates. Having heard that the streets of Hankow were verywet, and that it was necessary to wear rain shoes, I went to borrowsome from a friend in th army, who was quartered outside the city.I was stoped by the garrison guards. T he place had become beryactive, the sloldiers had for the first time been furnished withbullets, and they wre pouring into the streets.”
“Rebels were approaching the city along the Canto=Hankowrailway,and fighting had begun. A big battle occurred outside thecity walls of Changsha. There was at the same time an insurrectionwithin the city, and the gates were stormed and taken by Chineselaboers. Through one of the gates I re-entered the city. Then Istood on a high place and watched the battle, until at last I sawthe Han flag rasied over the yamen. It was a white banner with thecharacter Han in it. I returned to my school, to find it undermilitary guard. ”
“On the following day, a tutu government wasorganized. Two prominent members of the Ke Lao Hui[Elder BrotherSociety] were made tutu and vice-tutu. These wereChiao Ta-feng and Chen Tso-hing, respectively. The new governmentwas established in the former buildings of the provincial advisoryitself was abolished. Among the Manchu documents found by therevolutionaries were some copies of a petition begging for theopening of parliament. The original had benn written in blood byHsu T'eh-li, who is now commisssioner of education in the SovietGovernment. Hsu had cut off the end of his finger, as a thatparliament be opened , I bid farewell[to hte provincial delegatesto Pedking] by cutting my finger.”
“The new tutu and vice-tutu not last long .They were not badmen, and had some revolutionary intentions, but they were poor andrepresented the interests of the oppressed. The landlords andmerchants were dissatiffied with them. Not many days later, when Iwent to call on a friend, I saw their corpses lying in the street.T'an Yen-k'ai had organized a revolt against them, asrepresentative of the Hunan landlords and militarists.”
“Many students were now joining the army. A student army hadbeen organized and among these students was T'ang Sheng-chih. I didnot like the student army; Iconsidered the basis of it too confused. I decided to join theregular army instead, and help complete the revolution. The Ch'ingEmperor had not yet abdicated, and there was a period ofstruggle.”
“My salary was seven yuan a month——which is more than I get inthe Red Army now, however——and of this I spenttwo yuan a month on food. I also had to buy water. The soldiers hadto carry water in from outside the city, but I, being a student,could not condescend t o carrying ,and bought it from the waterpeddlers. The rest of my wages were spent on newspapers, of which Ibecame an avid reader. Among journals then dealing with therevolution wa the Hsiang Chiang Jih-pao. Socialism was discussed init, and in these columns I first learned the term. I also discussedsocialism, really social-reformism, with other students andsoldiers. I read some pamphlets written by Kiang K'ang-hu aboutsocialism and its priciples. I wrote enthusiastically to several ofmy classmates on this subject, but only one of them responded inagreement.”
“There was a Hunan miner in my squad, and an ironsmith, whom Iliked very much. The rest were mediocre, and one was a rascal. Ipersuaded two more students to join the army, and came to be onfriendly terms with the platoon commander and most of the soldiers.I could help by writing letters for them or in other suchways.”
“The outcome of the revolution was not yet decided. The Ch'inghad not wholly given up power, and there was a a atruggle withinthe Kuomintang concerning the leadership. It was said in Hunan thatfurther war was inevitable. Several armies were organized againstthe Manchus and against Yuan Shih-K'ai. Among these was the Hunanarmy. But just as the Hunnan were preparing to move into action,Sun Yat-sen and Yuan Shi-K'ai came to an agreement, the scheduledwar was called off, North and South were 'unified' and the NankingGovernment was dissolved. Thinking the revolution was over, Iresigned from the army and decided to return to my books. I hadbeen a soldier for half a year.”
“I was the living in a guild house for natives of Hsiang Hsiang district. Many soldiers were there also 'retired' or disbanded men from the district, who had no work to do and...
“I was the living in a guild house for natives of Hsiang Hsiang district. Many soldiers were there also 'retired' or disbanded men from the district, who had no work to do and little money. Students and soldiers were alwasys quarreling in the guild house, and one night this hostility between then broke out in physical violence. The soldiers attacked and tried to kill the students. I escaped by fleeing to the toilet, where I hid until the fight was over.”
“I had no moneythen, my family refusing to support me unless I entered school, and since could no longer live in the guild house I began looking for a new place to lodge. Meanwhile, I had been thinking seriously of my 'career' and advertisements again. An attractive announcement of the Hunan Normal School now came to my attention, and I read with interest of its advantages: no tuition required, and cheap board and cheap lodging. Two of my friends were also urging me to enter. They wanted my help in preparing entrance essays. I wrote of my intention to my family and I received their consent. I composed essarys for my two friends, and wrote one of my own. All were accepted-in reality ,therefore, I was accepted three times. I did not then think my act of substituting for my friends an immoral one; it was merely a matter of friendship.”
“I was a student in the normal school for five years， and managed to resist the appeals of all future advertising. Finally I actually got my degree. Incidents in my life here, in the Hunan Provincial First Normal [Teachers' Training] School, were many, and during this period my political ideas began to take shape. Here also I acquired my first experiences in social action. ”
“There were many regulations in the new school and I agreed with very few of them. For one thing, I was opposed to the required courses in natural science. I wanted to specialize in social sciences. Natural sciences did not especially interest of all I hated a compulsory course in still-life drawing. I thought it extremely stupid. I used to think of the simplest subjects possible to draw, finish up quickly and leave the class. I remember once, drawing a picture of the 'half-sun, half-rock' which I represented by a straight line with a semicircle over it. Another itme during an examination in drawing I contented myself with making anoval. I called it an egg. I got 40 in drawing, and failed. Fortunately my marks in social sciences were all excellent, and they balanced my poor grades in these other classes.”
“A Chinese teacher here, whom the studens nicknamed 'Yuan the Big Beard' ridiculed my writing and called it the work of a journalist. He despised Liang Chi-chao, who had been my model, and considered him half-literate. I was obliged to alter my style. I studied the writings of Han Yu, and mastered the old Classical phraseology. Thanks to Yuan the Big Beard, therefore, I can today still turn out a passable Classical essay if required.”
“The teacher who made the strongest impression on me was YangChangji, a returned student from England, with whose life I was later to become intimately related. He taught ethics, he was an idealist and a man of high moral character. He believed in his ethics very strongly and tried to imbue his studentgs with the desire to become just, moral, virtuous men, useful in society. Under his influence I read a book on ethics translated by Ts'ai Yuan-pei and was inspired to write an essay which I entitled 'The Energy of the Mind.' I was then an idealist and my essay was highly praised by Professor Yang Changchi, from his idealist viewpoint. He gave me a mark of 100 for it.”
“A teacher named T'ang used to give me old copies of Min Pao[People's Journal] , and I read them with keen interest. I learned from them about the activities and program of the T'ung Meng Hui. One day I read a copy of the Min Pao containing a story about two Chinese students who were traveling across China and had reached Tatsienlu, on the edge of Tibet. This inspired me very much. I wanted to follow their example; but I had no money, and thought I should first try out traveling in Hunan.”
“The next summer I set out across the province by foot, and journeyed through five counties. I was accompanied by a studnet named Hsiao Yu. We walked through these five counties without using a single copper. The peasants fed us and gave us a place to sleep; wherever we went we were kindly treated and wekcined, This fellow, Hsiao Yu, with whom I traveled, later became a Kuomintang official in Nanking ,under Yi Pei-ji, who was then president of Hunan Normal School. Yi Pei-chi became a high officialo at Nanking and had Hsiao Yu appointed to the office of custodian of the Peking Palace Museum. Hsiao sold some of the most valuable treasures in the museum and absconded with the funds in 1934.”
红星照耀中国/Red Star Over China
在长沙的日子/Days in Changsha( 一）
“I began to long to...
红星照耀中国/Red Star Over China
在长沙的日子/Days in Changsha( 一）
“I began to long to go to Changsha, the great city, the capital of the province, which was 120 li from my home. It was said that this city was very big, contained many, many people, numerous schools, and the yamen of the governor. It was a magnificent place altogether. I wanted very much to go there at this time, and enter the middle school for Hsiang Hsiang people. That winter I asked one of my teachers in the higher primary school to introduce me winter I asked one of my teachers in the higher primary school to introduce me there. The teacher agreed, and I walked to Chang-sha, exceedingly excited, half fearing that I would be refused entrance, hardly daring to hope that could actually become a student in this great school. To my astonishment， I was admitted without difficulty. But political events were moving rapidly and I was to remain there only half a year. ”
“In Changsha I read my first newspaper, Min-li-pao[People's Strength], a nationalist revolutionary journal which told of the Canton Uprising against the Manchu Dynasty and the death of the Seventy-two Heroes, under ther leadership of a Hunanese named Huang Hsing. I was most impressed with this story and found the Min-li-pao full of stimulating material. It was edited by Yu Yu-jen, who later became a famous leader of the Kuomintang. I learned also of Sun Yat-sen at this time, and of the program of the T'ung Meng Hui. The country was onthe eve of the First Revolution . I was so agitated that I wrote an article, which I posted on the school wall. It was my first expression of a political opinion, and it was somewhat muddled. I had not yet given up my admiration of K'ang Yu-wei and Liang Ch'i-chao. I did not clearly understand the differences between them. Therefore in my article I advocated that Sun Yat-sen must be called back from Japan to become president of the new government, that K'ang Yu-wei be made premier,and Liang Chi-chao minister of foregin affair!”
“The anti-foreign-capital movement began in connection with the building of the Szechuan-Hankow railway, and a popular demand for a parliament became widespread. In reply to it the Emperor decreed merely that an advisory council be demonstrated their anti-Manchu sentiments by a rebellion against the pigtail. One friend and I clipped off our pigtails, but others, who had promised to do so, afterward failed to keep their word. My friend and I therefore assaulted them insecret and forcibly removed their word. My friend and I therefore assaulted them in our shears. Thus in a short space of time I had progressed from ridiculing the False Foreign Devil's imitation queue to demanding the general abolition of queues. How a political idea can change a point of view. ”
“I got into a dispute with a friend in a law school over the pigtail episode, and we each advancedc opposing theories on the subject. The law student held that the body, skin, hair, and nails are heritages from one's parents and must not be destroyed, quoting the Classics to clinch his argument. But I myself and the antipigtailers developed a countertheory, on an anti-Manchu political basis, and thoroughly silenced him.”
“After the Wuhan Uprsing occurred, led by Li Yuan-hong, martial law was declared in Hunan. The political scene rapidly altered. One day a revolutionary appeared in the middle school and made a stirring speech, with the permission of the principal. Seven or eight students arose in the assembly and supported him with vigorous denunciation of the Manchus, and calls for action to establish the Republic. Everyone listened with complete attention. Not a sound was heard as the orator of the revolution, one of the officials of Li Yuan-hong, spoke before the excited students.”
红星照耀中国/Red Star Over China
“I went to the school with my cousin and registered. I claimed to be a Hsiang Hsiang...
红星照耀中国/Red Star Over China
“I went to the school with my cousin and registered. I claimed to be a Hsiang Hsiang man, beacuse I understood that the school was open only to natives of Hsiang Hsiang. Later on I took my true status as a Hsiang T'an native when I discovered that the place was open was open to all. I paid 1,400 coppers here for five months' board, lodging, and all materials necessary for study. My father finally agreed to let me enter, after friends had argued to him that this 'advanced' education would increase my earning powers. This was the first time I had been as far away from home as fifty li. I was sixteen years old.”
“In the new school I could study natural science and new subjects of Western learning. Another notable thing was that one of the teachers was a returned student from Japan, and he wore a false queue. It was quite easy to tell that his queue was false. Everyone laughed at him and called him the 'False Foreign Devil'.”
“I had never before seen so many children together. Most of them were sons of landlords, wearing expnesive clothes; very few peasants could afford to send their children to such a school. I was more poorly dressed than the others. I owned only one decent coat-and-trousers suit. Gowns were not worn by students, but only by the teachers, and none but 'foreign devils' wore foreign clothes. Many of the richer students despised me becasue usually I was wearing my ragged coat and trousers. However, among them I had friends, and two especially were my good comrades. One of those is now a writer, living in Soviet Russia.”
“I was also dislike because I was not a native of Hsiang Hsiang. It was very important to be a native of Hsiang Hsiang and also important to be from a certain district of Hsiang Hsiang. There was an upper, lower, and middle district, and lower and upper were continually fighting, purely on a regional basis. Neither could become reconciled to the existence of the other. I took a neutral position in this war, because I was not a native at all. consequently all three factions despised me. I felt spiritually very depressed.”
“I made good progress at this school. The teachers liked me, especially those who taught the Classics, beacuse I wrote good essays in the Classical manner. But my mind was not on the Classics. I was reading two books sent to me by my cousin, telling of the reform movement of K'ang Yu-Wei. One was by Liang Ch'i-ch'ao, editor of the Hsin-min Ts'ung-pao[New People's Miscellany]. I read and reread those books until I knew them by heart. I worshiped K'ang Yu-wei and Liang Ch'i-ch'ao, and was very grateful to my cousin, whom I then thought very progressive, but who later became a counterrevolutionary, a member of the gentry, and joined the reactionaries in the period of the Great Revolution of 1925——1927 ”
“Many of the students disliked the False Foregin Devil becasue of his inhuman queue, but I liked hearing him talk about Japan. He taught music and English. One of his songs was Japanese and was called 'The Battle on the Yellow Sea' I still remember some charming words from it:
The sparrow sings
The nightgale dances
And the green fields are lovely in the spring
The willows are green-leaved
And there is a new picture
“At that time I knew and felt the beauty of Janpan, and felt something of her pride and might, in this song of her victory over Russia, I did not think there was also a barbarous Japan——the Japan we know today.”
“This is all I learned from the False Foreign Devil. I recall also that at about this time I first heard that the Emperor and TzuHsi, the Empress Dowager, were both dead, although the new Emperor, Hsuan T'ung[P'u Yi], had already been ruling for two years. I was not yet an antimonarchist; indeed, I considered the Emperor as well as most officials to be honest, good, and clever men. They only needed the help of K'ang Yu-wei's reforms. I was fascinated by accounts of the rulers of ancient China: Yao, Shun, Yu, Ch'in Shih Huang Ti, and Han WuTi, and read many books about them. I also learned something of foreign history at this time, and of geography. I had first heard of America in an article which told of the American Revolution and contained a sentence like this: 'After eight years of difficult war, Washington won victory and bulit up his nation. 'After eight years of difficult war, Washington won victory and built up his nation.' In a book called Great Heroes of the World, I read also of Napoleon, Catherine of Russia, Peter the Great, Wellington, Gladstone, Rousseau, Montesquieu, and Lincoln.”
“Sheng-shilh Wei-yan[Words of Warning] stimulated in me a desire to resume my studies. I had also become disgusted with my labor on the farm. My father naturally opposed me....
“Sheng-shilh Wei-yan[Words of Warning] stimulated in me a desire to resume my studies. I had also become disgusted with my labor on the farm. My father naturally opposed me. We quarreled about it, and finally I ran away from home. I went to the home of an unemployed law student, and there I studied for half a year. After that I studied more of the Classics under an old chinese scholar, and also read many contemporary articles and a few books.”
“At this time an incident occurred in Hunan which influenced my whole life. Outside the little Chinese school where I was studying, we students noticed many bean merchats coming back from Changsha. We asked them why they were all leaving. They told us about a big uprising in the city. ”
“There had been a severe famine that year, and in Changsha thousanbds were without food. The starving sent a delegation to the civil governor to beg for relief, but he replied to them haughtily, 'Why haven't you food? There is plenty in the city. I always have enough.' When the people were told the governor's reply, they became very angry. They held mass meetings and organized a demonstration. They attacked the Manchu yamen, cut down the flagpole, the symbol of office, and drove out the governor. Following this,the Commissioner of Internal Affairs, a man named Chang, came out on his horse and told the people that the government would take measures to help them. Chang was evidently sincere in his promise, but the Emperor disliked him and accused him of having intimate connections with ‘the mob’.He was removed. A new governor arrived, and at once ordered the arrest of the leaders of the uprising. Many of them were beheaded and their heads displayed on poles as a warning to future 'rebels' .”
"This incident was discussed in my school for many days. It made a deep impression on me. Most of the other students sympathized with the ‘insurrectionists’, but only from an observer's point of view. They did not understand that it had any relation to their own lives. They were merely interested in it as an exciting incident. I never fogrot it . I felt that there with the rebels were ordinary people like my own family and I deeply resented the injustice of the treatment given to them."
“Not long afterward, in ShaoShan, there was a conflict between members of the Ke Lao Hui, a secret society, and a local landlord. He sued them in court, and as he was a powful landlord he easily bought a decision favorable to himself. The Ke Lao Hui members were defeated. But instead of submitting, they rebelled against the landlord and the goverment and withdrew to a local mountain called Liu Shan, where they built a stronghold. Troops were sent against them and the landlord spread a story that they had sacrificed a child when they raised the banner of revolt. The leader of the rebels was called P'ang the Millstone Maker. They were finally suppressed and P'ang was forced to flee. He was eventually captured and beheaded. In the eyes of the students, however, he was a hero, for all sympathized with the revolt.”
“Next year, when the new rice was not yet harvested and the winter rice was exhausted, there was a food shortage in our district. The poor demanded help from the rich farmers and they began amovement called 'Eat Rice Without Charge'. My father was a rice merchant and was exporting much grain to the city from our district, despite the shortage. One of his consignments was seized by the poor villagers and his wrath was boundless. I did not sympathize with him. At the same time I thought the villagers' method was wrong .”
“Another influence on me at this time was the presence in alocal primary shchool of a 'radical' teacher. He was 'radical' because he was opposed to Buddhism and wanted to get rid of the gods. He urged people to convert their temples into schools. He was a widely discussed personality. I admired him and agreed with his views.”
“These incidents, occurring close together, made lasting impressions on my young mind, already rebellious. In this period also I began to have a certain amount of political consciousness, especially after I read a pamphlet telling of the desmemberment of China. I remember even now that this pamphlet opened with the sentence:'Alas, China will be subjugated!' It told of Japan's occupation of Korea and Taiwan, of the loss of suzerainty in Indochina, Burma, and elsewhere. After I read this I felt depressed about the futre of my country and began to realize that it was the duty of all the people to help save it.”
“My father had decided to apprentice me to a rice shop in Hsiang T'an, with which he had connections. I was not opposed to it at first, thinking it minght be interesting. But about this time I heard of an unusual new school and made up my mind to go there, despite my father's opposition. This school was in Hsiang hsien, where my mother's famliy lived. A cousin of mine was a student there and he told me of the new school and of the changing conditions in 'modern' education'. There was less emphasis on the Classics, and more was taught of the 'new knowledge' of the West. The educational methods , also, were quite 'radical'.”
“My father had two years...
“My father had two years of schooling and he could read enough to keep books. My mother was wholly illiterate. Both wre from peasant families. I was the family 'scholar'. I knew the Classics, but disliked them. What I enjoyed were the romances of Old China, and especially stories of rebellions. I read 《the Yo Fei Chronicles》, 《The Water Margin》, 《The Three Kingdoms》and 《Travels in the West》while still very young, and despite the vigilance of my old teacher, who hated these outlawed books and called them wicked. I used to read them in school, covering them up with a Classic when the teacher wakled past. So also did most of my schoolmates. We learned many of the stories almost by heart, and discussed and rediscussed them many times. We knew more of them than us.I believe that perhaps I was much influenced by such books, read at an impressionable age. ”
“I finally left the primary school when I was thirteen and began to work long hours on the farm, helping the hired laborer, doing the full labor of a man during the day and at night keeping books for my father. Neverthelss, I succeeded in continuing my reading, devouring everything I could find except the Classics, especially after he was defeated in a lawsuit because of an apt Classical quotation used by his adversary in the Chinese court. I used to cover up the window of my room late at night so that my father would not see the light. In this way I read a book called Sheng-shiWeiyen[Words of Warning], which I liked very much. The author, one of a number of old reformist scholars, thought that the weakness of China lay in lack of Western appliances——railways, telephones, telegraphs, and steamships——and wated to have them introduced into the country. My father considered such books a waste of time. He wanted me to read something pracitical like the Classics which could help him in winning lawsuits.”
“I continued to read the old romances and tales of Chinese literature. It occurred to me one day that there was one thing peculiar about such stories, and that was the absence of peasants who tilled the land. All the characters were warriors, officials, or scholars; there was never a peasant hero. I woondered about this for two years, and then I analyzed the content of the stories. I found that they all glorified men of arms, rulers of the people, who did not have to work the land, beacuse they owned and controlled it and evidently made the peasants work it for them.”
“My father was in his early days, and in middle age, a skeptic, but my mother devoutly worshiped Buddha. She gave her children religious instruction, and we were all saddened that our father was an unbeliever. When I was nine years old I seriously discussed the problem of my father's lack of piety with my mother. We made many attempts then and later on to convert him, but without success. He only cused us, and , overwhelmed by his attacks, we withdrew to devise new plans. But he would have nothing to do with the gods. ”
“My reading gradually began to influence me, however; Imyself became more and more skeptical. My mother became concerned about me, and scolded me for my indifference to the requirements of the faith, but my father made no comment. Then one day he went out on the road to collect some money, and onhis way he met a tiger. The tiger was surprised at the encounter and fled at once, but my father was even more astonished and afterwards reflected a good deal on his miraculous escape. He began to wonder if he had not offended the gods. From then on he showed more respect to Buddhism and burned incense now and then. Yet when my own backsliding grew worse, the old man did not interfere. He prayed to the gods only when he ws in difficulties. ”
I was born in the village of Shao Shan,in Hsiang T'an hesin, Huan province, in 1983. My father's name was Mao Shun-sheng, and my mother's maiden name was Wen Qi-mei.
I was born in the village of Shao Shan,in Hsiang T'an hesin, Huan province, in 1983. My father's name was Mao Shun-sheng, and my mother's maiden name was Wen Qi-mei.
" My father was a poor peasant and while still young was obliged to join the army because of heavy debts, and by saving carefully and gathering together a little money through small trading and other enterprise he managed to buy back his land."
I begin studying in a local primary school when I was eight and remained there until I was thirteen years old. In the early morning and at night I worked on the farm. During the day I read the Confucian Analects and Four Classics .My Chinese teacher belonged to the stern -treatment school. He was harsh and severe, frequently beating his students. Because of that I ran away from the school when I was ten. I was afraid to return home for fear of receiving a beating there,and set out in the general direction of the city ,which I believed to be in a valley somewhere. I wandered for three days before I was finally found by my family. Then I learned that I had circled round and round in my travels , and in all my walking had got only about eight li from my home .
After my return to the family , however , to my surprise conditions somewhat improved. My father was slightly more considerate and the teacher was more inclined to moderation .The result of my act of protest impressed me very much. It was a successful 'strike'.
" My father wanted me to begin keeping the family books as soon as I had learned a few characters. He wanted me to learn to use the abacus. As my father insisted upon this I began to work at those accounts at night. He was a severe taskmaster. He hated to me idle, and if there were no books to be kept he put me to work at farm tasks. He was a hot-tempered man and frequent beat both me and my borthers. He gave us no money whatever, and the most meager food. On the fifteenth of every month he made a concession to his laborers and gave them eggs with their rice, but never meat. To me he gave neither eggs nor meat. "
"My mother was a kind woman, generous and sympathetic, and ever ready to share what she had. She pitied the poor and often gave them rice when they came to ask for it during famines. But she couldn't do so when my father was present. He disapproved of charity. We had many quarrles in my home about this question "
"There were two ‘parties’ in the family. One was my father, the Ruling Power. The opposition was made up of myself,my mother, my borthers ,and sometimes even the laborer. In the ‘united front’ of the Opposition, however, there was a difference of opinion. My mother advocated a policy of indirect attack. She criticized any overt display of emotion and attempts at open rebellion against the Ruling Power. She said it was not the Chinese way."
"But when I was thirteen I discovered a powerful argument of my own for debating with my father on his own ground, by quoting the Classics. My father’s favorite accusations against me were of unfilial conduct and laziness. I quoted, in exchange,passages from the Classics saying that the elder must be kind and affectionate. Against his charge that I was lazy I used the rebuttal that older people should do more work than younger, that my father was over three times as old as myself, and therefore should domore work. And I declared that when I was his age I would be much more energetic. "
"My dissatisfaction increased. The dialectical struggle in our family was constantly developing. One incident I especially remember. When I was about thirteen my father invited many guests to his home, and while they were present a dispute arose between the teo of us. My father denounced me before the whole group, calling me lazy and useless. This infuriated me. I cursed him and left the house. My mother ran after me and tried to persuademe to return. My father also pursued me, cursing at the same time that he commanded me to come back. I reached the edge of