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【奇速英语】近5年高考英语语法填空词性转换总结,早看早掌握!
爱英语的Nona 2020-03-28

词性转换一直以来都是高考英语语法填空的必考点。这一考点涉及到构词法,尤其是词的派生。

今天老师将近五年高考题中语法填空题涉及的词性转换题整理出来,再对高考的词性转换进行分类总结,最后就派生词的前缀和后缀进行分类讲解,希望可以为同学们解答这一类题型助力。

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一、近五年高考语法填空词性转换总结

▲ 2019 年

2019 全国 I 卷

It is difficult to figure out a global population of polar bears as much of the range has been    62    (poor) studied.

In recent years some Inuit people in Nunavut have reported increases in bear sightings around human settlements, leading to a   66  (believe) that populations are increasing.

 

2019 全国 II 卷

Her years of hard work have    63    (final) been acknowledged after a customer nominated (提名) her to be Cheshire’s Woman Of The Year.

We are so proud of her. It’s    70    (wonder).

 

2019 全国 III 卷

When they were free from work, they invited us to local events and let us know of an interesting    66    (compete) to watch, together with the story behind it. They also shared with us many    67    (tradition) stories about Hawaii that were    68    (huge) popular with tourists.

 

2019 浙江

When the children are walking or cycling to school on dark mornings, car drivers can     60   (easy) see them.

Other American studies showed no    64    (connect) between uniforms and school performance.

School uniforms are    65    (tradition) in Britain, but some schools are starting to get rid of them.

 

2019 北京

Students should have a proper attitude towards college before thinking about which college to attend, and it’s never too early to make necessary preparations for a healthy and    10    (meaning) college experience.

 

▲ 2018 年

2018 全国 I 卷

To avoid knee pain, you can run on soft surfaces, do exercises to     68     (strength) your leg muscles (肌肉), avoid hills and get good running shoes. Running is cheap, easy and it’s always   69     (energy).

 

2018 全国 II 卷

A taste for meat is   63   (actual) behind the change: An important part of its corn is used to feed chickens, pigs, and cattle.

This switch has decreased   66   (pollute) in the country’s major lakes and reservoirs and made drinking water safer for people.

According to the World Bank, China accounts for about 30 percent of total   67   (globe) fertilizer consumption.

 

2018 全国 III 卷

My name is Mireya Mayor. I’m a    66    (science) who studies animals such as apes and monkeys.

 

2018 浙江卷

The obvious one is money; eating out once or twice a week may be    62    (afford) but doing this most days adds up.

Researchers have found that there is a direct link between the increase in food eaten outside the home and the rise in    64    (weigh) problems.

 

▲ 2017 年

2017 全国 I 卷

Having enough fat and salt in your meals will reduce the urge to snack (吃点心) between meals and will improve the taste of your food. However, be     69    (care) not to go to extremes.

 

2017 全国 II 卷

Steam engines were used to pull the carriages and it must have been     66    (fair) unpleasant for the passengers, with all the smoke and noise.

This development was only possible with the    69     (introduce) of electric-powered engines and lifts. The central London Railway was one of the most    70    (success) of these new lines, and was opened in 1900.

 

2017 全国 III 卷

She is determined to carry on with her    66    (educate). 

I don’t want to get too absorbed in modeling. It is    70    (certain) fun but the lifestyle is a little unreal.

 

2017 浙江卷

But something made her look closer, and she noticed a     57    (shine) object.

 

▲ 2016 年

2016 全国 I 卷

Chengdu has dozens of new millionaires, Asia’s biggest building, and fancy new hotels. But for tourists like me, pandas are its top    61    (attract).

The title will be    63    (official) given to me at a ceremony in London.

 

2016 全国 II 卷

If you feel stressed by responsibilities at work, you should take a step back and identify (识别) those of greater and less importance. Then, handle the most important tasks first so you’ll feel a real sense of      42    (achieve).

Recent studies show that we are far more productive at work if we take short breaks    47    (regular).

 

2016 全国 III 卷

Food in small pieces could be eaten easily with twigs which    46    (gradual) turned into chopsticks. Some people think that the great Chinese scholar Confucius, who lived from roughly 551 to 479 B.C. influenced the    48    (develop) of chopsticks.

 

▲ 2015 年

2015 全国 I 卷

Abercrombie & Kent, a travel company in Hong Kong, says it    69    (regular) arranges quick getaways here for people living in Shanghai and Hong Kong.

 

2015 全国 II 卷

In addition to their simple beauty, what makes the adobe dwellings admirable is their    63    (able) to “air condition” a house without using electric equipment.

Walls made of adobe take in the heat from the sun on hot days and give out that heat    65      (slow) during cool nights.

As    69    (nature) architects, the Pueblo Indians figured out exactly how thick the adobe walls needed to be to make the cycle work on most days.

答案

▲ 2019 年

2019 全国 I 卷 62. poorly   66. belief

2019 全国 II 卷 63. finally   70. wonderful

2019 全国 III 卷 66. competition  67. traditional  68. hugely

2019 浙江 60. easily 64. connection / connections   65. traditional

2019 北京 10. meaningful

▲ 2018 年

2018 全国 I 卷 68. strengthen  69. energetic

2018 全国 II 卷 63. actually  66. pollution  67. global

2018 全国 III 卷 66. scientist

2018 浙江卷 62. affordable  64. weight

▲ 2017 年

2017 全国 I 卷 69. careful

2017 全国 II 卷 66. fairly  69. introduction  70. successful

2017 全国 III 卷 66. education  70. certainly

2017 浙江卷 57. shiny / shining

▲ 2016 年

2016 全国 I 卷 61. attraction     63. officially   

2016 全国 II 卷 42. achievement   47. regularly    

2016 全国 III 卷 46. gradually  48. development

▲ 2015 年

2015 全国 I 卷 69. regularly

2015 全国 II 卷 63. ability   65. slowly   69. natural

二、近五年考点分类总结


三、常见前缀后缀盘点

前缀一般改变词义而不改变词性;后缀一般改变词性而不改变词义。

01

后缀

副词后缀

副词后缀 -ly:

absolutely, completely, exactly, extremely, frequently, obviously, particularly, similarly, suddenly

形容词后缀

-able / -ible:

reasonable, flexible, reliable, valuable, accessible, considerable

-ive:

effective, sensitive, attractive, impressive

-al / -ial:

practical, beneficial, financial, facial, mental, personal

-ate:

considerate, fortunate

-ful:

powerful, successful, wonderful, fearful, respectful, skillful, thoughtful, shameful

-ly:

likely, lively, lonely, deadly, elderly, hourly, yearly, daily

-ent:

confident, convenient, independent, different, violent

-less:

countless, homeless, useless, breathless, effortless, selfless

-y:

guilty, healthy, hungry, sleepy, tasty, thirsty, wealthy, worthy, dusty

-ic:

energetic, scientific, fantastic

-ary / -ory:

contradictory, documentary, imaginary

-ous:

obvious, various, adventurous, ambitious, courageous, disastrous, mountainous

名词后缀

-ity / -ty / -y:

curiosity, responsibility, safety, security, similarity, necessity

-ance / -ence:

appearance, performance, acceptance, confidence, preference, significance

-sion / -tion:

contribution, decision, impression, admission, concentration, discussion, donation

-th:

strength, depth, growth, length, warmth, width

-ment:

achievement, treatment, amusement, arrangement, excitement, improvement

-ure / -ture / -ature:

failure, pressure, exposure, mixture, signature

-ing:

building, suffering, understanding, warning

-al:

approval, arrival, survival

-cy:

accuracy, fluency, frequency, privacy

-ness:

awareness, coldness, weakness

动词后缀

-ate:

concentrate, accelerate, advocate, regulate

-(e)n:

broaden, fasten, frighten, sharpen, strengthen, darken, deepen, harden, lengthen

-(i)fy

satisfy, clarify, classify, identify, qualify, simplify, terrify

-ize / -ise:

apologize, organize, realize, recognize

名词后缀(人)

-ar / -er / -or

conductor, director, engineer, beggar, employer, instructor, interviewer, lawyer, liar

-ist

artist, novelist, specialist, tourist, pianist, scientist, violinist

-ant

accountant, assistant, servant

02

前缀

anti- 反对,对抗;相反;防(止):

anti-aging, anti-anxiety, anti-virus, antifreeze

dis- 不,否定,相反:

disadvantage, discourage, dishonest, dislike, disorder

il- / im- / in- / ir- 不,非,无:

illegal, impatient, impossible, inexpensive, immoral, inconvenient, irregular

mis- 错误的;坏的;不,相反:

misfortune, misunderstand, mislead, mistrust

non- 无,不,非:

nonprofit, nonsense, nonsmoking, nonstop, non-recycling

un- 不;表示相反的动作:

unable, unexpected, unfortunate, unusual, unfair, unforgettable, unnecessary

co- 和……一起,共同:

cooperate, co-discover, co-renter, co-worker

en- 使处于……状态,使具有……特性;围住:

enable, encourage, enjoy, endanger, enlarge, enrich, ensure

extra- 在……之外,超出;非常,格外:

extraordinary, extra-large, extra-strong

inter- 在……之间,相互:

interrupt, interview, interaction, international, Internet, interval

micro- 极小的,微小的:

microbiology, microphone, microscope, microwave

mini- (同类中) 特小的,微型的:

minibus, minicomputer, miniskirt

multi- 多于一的,多的: 

multimedia, multinational, multitask

pre- 在……之前,预先:

predict, prejudice, prepaid, preview

re- 再,重新:

remind, remove, replace, return, review, react, reaction

tele- 远 (距离) 的;电视的;使用电话的:

telephone, telescope, television, telesales

trans- 横穿,横贯;表示变化:

transform, translate, transport, transportation, transplant

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