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中世纪

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Karl aus Preussen

一些中世紀人物畫片,都是巧克力廠Stollwerck以前出的。

1.查理曼

2.奧托大帝

3.紅鬍子腓特烈

4.Walther von der Vogelweide(有一說一,怎麼把他畫得那麼粗獷?)

5.Ludwig der Bayer(建議也出一下他的對手Friedrich der Schöne)

6.之前發過的Konradin和Friedrich von Baden的鈣圖。

一些中世紀人物畫片,都是巧克力廠Stollwerck以前出的。

1.查理曼

2.奧托大帝

3.紅鬍子腓特烈

4.Walther von der Vogelweide(有一說一,怎麼把他畫得那麼粗獷?)

5.Ludwig der Bayer(建議也出一下他的對手Friedrich der Schöne)

6.之前發過的Konradin和Friedrich von Baden的鈣圖。

Amy-Jo_

玛格丽特·玛丽露西·奥特曼

没人看我文 没人看我文 没人看我文

设图为代餐 勿上升演员

【HP同人文】女主人设

Margarete Marieluise Ottman

_个人

\神圣罗马帝国-波西米亚公国

生亡 \1481.6-1499.12

血统  \狭义麻瓜出身

宗教\ 基督新教

性格\ 感性 急性子 自来熟 暴躁 脂粉气执行力强 贪小便宜 轻浮 爱炫耀 虚荣心强 ...

玛格丽特·玛丽露西·奥特曼

没人看我文 没人看我文 没人看我文

设图为代餐 勿上升演员

【HP同人文】女主人设

Margarete Marieluise Ottman

_个人

\神圣罗马帝国-波西米亚公国

生亡 \1481.6-1499.12

血统  \狭义麻瓜出身

宗教\ 基督新教

性格\ 感性 急性子 自来熟 暴躁 脂粉气执行力强 贪小便宜 轻浮 爱炫耀 虚荣心强 血统歧视严重不愿随大流、被动跟随当时主流价值观前进 不愿芸芸众生

思想\ “男人似乎只喜欢两类女的,一类是非常蠢的小孩子,嗨,连乳房都没发育成熟吧,要是再会点插花、烘焙就更锦上添花了;另一类呢,是和男人争烟斗的婊子们,永远精心地把发髻扯成微乱,永远穿露胸的衣服,永远大骂脏话!哦,不幸的是我不是其中任何一类。”

她与那个时代格格不入 偏要特立独行 不管是社会因素还是个人因素 结局只能濒临崩溃

外貌\ 乌黑长发倾斜及腰 显出几分慵懒榛子色眼睛明媚动人 豆沙色丰唇 浓艳古典系 不耐看 初看惊艳 看久了会审美

疲劳

博格特 \没有马克西米连的世界

厄里斯 \与马克西米连静静坐在原野上 看着日出到日落_“交际花”仅是需要这样的安静

_学业

学校\ 德姆斯特朗_ 16岁成绩太差被开除

魔杖\ 紫衫木-巨怪胡须-13英寸

守护神\ 无法召唤

爱好\ 神学

\基本上不识字

_人际

父亲\ 波西米亚麻瓜出身巫师

母亲\ 玛格丽特·德·罗什舒阿尔_法国贵族麻瓜

_二人均在玛格丽特六岁时死于黑死病堂姨妈汤普森夫人接管了她来到苏格兰生活

精神依靠&挚友\ 马克西米连·赫歇尔

官配\ 赛巴斯蒂安·冯·哥达

非官配&表哥\ 狄伦.汤普森

非官配 \雅各布·冯·霍夫曼

酒肉朋友\ 亚历山德拉·奥拉夫森 

卡洛琳·查理

霍莉·冯·瑞

厌\ 海伦·德·唐代斯

伊芙琳·德·叶维特

人设图:阿黛莱德·凯恩&阿努克·斯特

夏季临江

【EN】Farewell,my redheaded boy

学英语系列英文版同人,中文版以及史实注解见【金雀花&亨二父子】再会,我的红发少年

Summary:The young Henry II bid farewell to his dearest father.

"If everything has been settled on the continent, I plan to sail to England next year. This time I am serious and must make some progress." A winding procession was marching unhurriedly...

学英语系列英文版同人,中文版以及史实注解见【金雀花&亨二父子】再会,我的红发少年

Summary:The young Henry II bid farewell to his dearest father.

"If everything has been settled on the continent, I plan to sail to England next year. This time I am serious and must make some progress." A winding procession was marching unhurriedly in the sunshine on the Loire riverside, led by two men. The beaming young duke of Normandy, riding on his horse, explained his plans to the other middle-aged man marching alongside him, "Now I can certainly impress many Normans in England. If they once sneered at my grandfather King Henry's infant grandson, they cannot ignore their duke of full age. But I need your help, lord father."

"Many years ago, I made a deal with your mother. She and your uncle ,earl of Gloucester were to go to England, and I was to leave them alone and would never claim the throne of England. But they were to leave Normandy to me." The red-haired man wore an ornate fedora with a bouquet of the golden genista that made him known as Plantagenet, glinting in the sunlight, "In fact, I have little interest in England either. You must ask me why, perhaps I just don't like rain."

"But Uncle Gloucester is no longer with us on the earth. Since then, my lady mother's power in England has weakened considerably. Apart from me, you are, of course, our strongest force. And, if I were king of England, you could not resist going to England for the rest of your life. How can a king's father be just the count of Anjou across the Channel? I would make you the richest earl in England, well, maybe create another title for you. You are not really preventing from thinking about these things, are you?"

"I have certainly thought about my future. If you become King of England, I certainly cannot stay in Anjou for the rest of my life." Count Geoffrey of Anjou pondered for a moment, "Perhaps I will go to my half-brother king of Jerusalem and save you, a king, from having to nod and bow to a humble count"

"Father!" Henry, Duke of Normandy, elbowed the other man, prompting the latter to laugh, "You must be joking, don't leave me so rashly!"

"Not so fast, at least I'm going to attend your coronation and wedding. Oh, speaking of Anjou ......" Geoffrey suddenly thought of something, "if you do become the king, I hope you'll leave Anjou to your younger brother."

"What?" Henry strangled his horse at once, "Why?"

"Isn't it enough that you have England and Normandy, already the same as your grandfather? You can't leave your brothers no land or title."

"I certainly have them in mind. I would make them the second and third earls in line in England. Or somewhere else, Brittany, Ireland ...... but obviously not Anjou - I can't lose Anjou!"

"Why?" Geoffery stopped likewise and looked back at his son who was protesting still in place.

"I am your eldest son. What kind of father does not pass on the most of his property to his eldest son?It is against the law, and even if you insist on it for now, I will always have my reason to take Anjou back." Henry clasped his hands to his chest with an air of righteousness.  The law, again the law, just like his grandfather, the boy's uncle had taught him too well. Geoffery thought to himself.

"And what if I give you Maine and leave Anjou to your brother, after all you were born in Le Mans and you have an affinity for it." Geoffrey tried, "Maine is valuable attaching the Normandy southern frontier, for that, I understand."

"No, if I don't have Anjou, then how can I ......!" Henry followed his father's words, but suddenly forced himself to swallow them.

"Finish your speak, son."

"No, it's nothing, really." Henry rode forward a few paces and slowly continued his march.

Geoffrey gave a kind of winning smile, "I've felt something was wrong with you ever since we got back from Paris. What exactly did you want to say just now?" Seeing his son avoiding his gaze, he simply went straight to the point, "Well, let me start it for you. If you don't have Anjou, you won't get Aquitaine ......"

"No!" The young man gave a sudden scream , not one of firm protest, but something closer to a strike of amazement, "I, I didn't mean no, I meant ...... what do you want to say?"

Geoffrey snorted, "Don't even think I don't know what you're thinking. You need Anjou because you have been offered a bargain, someone need you defend Aquitaine, and Anjou is next to Aquitaine's northern border, just a day's walk from the ducal capital, and you, my good son, happen to be obsessed with the thought of being the duke of Aquitaine! --Aren’t you?"

The young duke of Normandy suddenly felt the hot sun directly in his face, and for a moment his whole cheek to the base of his ear was red with heat. He tried at first to avoid his father's charming but dangerous smiling eyes, but finally, out of sheer courage, he puffed up his chest and blurted out before pulling himself back: "Yes! I just want Aquitaine!"

"It is Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine, who is wanted." Geoffrey smiled, charming as always, but aggressive.

"Does it make a difference?" Henry began with a sophomoric insistence, "I see no reason why having ambitions for England is right but having for Aquitaine is not."

"Kingdom of England, though now in disorder, once submitted to the sovereign of your maternal grandfather. Although I disliked him, I have to admit that. But what of Aquitaine? None of the dukes has ever truly conquered the whole Aquitaine ......"

"Before the Duke of Aquitaine, I would be styled as King of England, and that makes a fundamental difference."

"...... The king of France has not brought Aquitaine into subjection either. Why do you think England can?"

"You mean the monkish King Louis who almost let the whole world know he couldn't even conquer his wife?" Beside the buxom and radiant queen, the king, who had recovered from a serious illness, was as pale as the freshly painted stone walls of an abbey. The duke of Normandy laughed meanly. How, he thought, could such a cold body meet the needs of his hot mistress?

For a moment, Geoffrey couldn't help but smile too, however, he quickly tensed up: "The king may be pure and innocent as a child, but he is still your sovereign lord. Even if you are the king of England, on this side of the Channel you are his vassal. And you are now planning to seduce your lord's wife!"

Henry shrugged, "Maybe in half or one year,all the world knows they won't be man and wife any time soon.

"And so what? Did you hear Louis himself say to you that he consented to your being the new duke of Aquitaine?" Geoffrey felt his mouth go dry and could not help untying the knot in his chest for a little air, "You would be condemned for having betrayed the king, you ducal title would not be acknowledged, Louis could summon all the French- including Eustace, King Stephen's son - -to attack all your dominions on this side, and no one will be able to help you then. What if you can't even keep Normandy?"

"It's a risk worth taking for Aquitaine's sake." Henry said firmly, followed by a curt smile, "At least Anjou won't attack me, will you, lord father?"

Geoffrey frowned: "If you only want Aquitaine, there is clearly an easier way for you. I advised you earlier to consider marrying Eleanor and Louis' daughter, and who could be more worthy to be your queen than the king's daughter? And that way, not only Aquitaine, but perhaps you might even get another crown, who knows?"

"Or get nothing at all!" Henry bristled, "Who knows if they each will have another son!"

"Wouldn't you have ended up with nothing if you had married Eleanor?" Geoffrey hammered his son's puffy chest, "And by marrying their daughter, you would have a wife of royal birth in the first place, which would help boost your reputation. You are well aware that your father is not a king and your mother is not a queen - at least not of her own country. As you can see, the widow of German emperor is worthless in the eyes of the French and the English. Don't forget that Stephen's son married Louis' sister. Secondly, you would have the goodwill of French king rather than hostility, which would help your French dominions to be secure. Finally, you can always discuss the girl's dowry, and even if it wasn't all of her parents' property, you'd still get some of it. You could ask for some of the fortresses on the Normandy frontier as a dowry for a French princess than those far-away forts of the duchess of Aquitaine." Geoffrey hardly knew how he had managed to finish such a long paragraph of reasoning in one breath, and he could not help but pull his collar loose again to relieve the heat, "Defend yourself against me line by line, son, if you can."

Henry bit his lip, dumbfounded for a moment, sweat continuing to break out on the tip of his nose and forehead. At the end of it, the words popped out dryly, "I don't want to marry a little girl who's not even as high as my belt!"

"In just five or six years, the Church will agree to your marriage. In just ten years or so, she will be mature enough to give you an heir. And you won't be thirty years old then. Until then, you are free to enjoy your bachelorhood. You won't have to put up with your wife's jealousy, your children's bickering - illegitimate children can be disowned if you don't like them, but you'll have to put up with whatever damn things comes out of your wife's womb, won't you? I don't see how that's not to your interest." He looked his son in the eye and said, word for word, "You say you wouldn't marry a maid dozen years younger than yourself, but preferred to marry a woman dozen years older than yourself? Don't tell me you've thought this through, son."

"Obviously I know how is like to marry an heiress dozen years older than oneself." Henry made a grimace, meaning something, "I've seen the worst of such marriages. You and my mother claim to hate each other, but in reality you don't work that badly together. Not to mention ......"

"What's more?"

Henry suddenly stepped forward and stepped in front of Geoffrey. The count of Anjou looked into the sunlight shining on his son, his physique was more like that of a short, stout Norman royal man on his mother's side, and his face has inherited most of his own features, except for the untamed eyes belonged to the Empress Matilda.

"I love her. And I'm sure she loves me too."

He said just as his mother had said she believed the Lord had commanded her to become queen of England. Geoffrey sighed as he looked into those unblinking, cold-coloured eyes.

"Don't talk big about love or not when you're seventeen or eighteen ...... Didn't the King Louis marry that woman when he was seventeen or eighteen too? Did he not love her so passionately? Look at the way they are now!"

"It's not the same at all! How can I be compared to Louis! Eleanor says I'm far more ……" Henry immediately shut up when he realised what he wanted to say.

"Far more......?" Geoffrey squinted at his son and thought to himself that a youth as intelligent as he would be turned into a fool who did not know how many eyes and how many mouths he had by such a bold mature woman. Any saint or jurist will be thrown out of his mind when a kiss comes from the queen. "I've always wondered why when the king and I talk about things together in Paris, you two are always nowhere to be found at the same time. What on earth did you do together?" The question was still to be asked in this way at last, "or rather, to which step?"

Obsessed, Henry simply blurted out, "The last step."

"Oh,only now that you're finally telling the truth."

"Father!" The duke of Normandy was just about to add his own protest when the count of Anjou raised his hand to stop it.

"That's enough. There's no point in dwelling on it with you any longer - it's too hot. Why don't we take a shower in the river before the sun goes down? Forget about women or maidens and have some manly activities."

Henry breathed a sigh of relief, he had just thought his father would turn on him for the continuous backbiting. He wiped the beads of sweat from his forehead and, having lifted the stone weighing down his heart, he realised that his clothes had long since become stuck to him with sweat. "Should say it earlier, father."

Led by the duke of Normandy and the count of Anjou, the procession suddenly spread out across the plain and, from a distance, looked as if countless stones had rolled down from the shore towards the river, eventually exploding in the river with countless splashes.

Henry dove into the water before his own father did, sinking smoothly beneath the surface to gaze at the sun through the sparkling water.

He began to remember the pieces of his time in Paris a month ago, when he and Eleanor had hidden from each other's father and husband, secluding themselves in the shade of trees or in corners at night, in places where the sun did not shine. Even without the sun, he could still feel the hands of the queen and duchess seeking solace in his loneliness; he had had women once ...... but the queen had made him feel like he hadn't any. There was that one time when the two of them almost fell into the sight of King Louis and Count Geoffrey, who, ironically, were talking about their marriage to the princess at about the same time. He remembered the queen's softer breasts and waist as that result. At that moment, he felt at once that he feared nothing and cared for nothing. His sovereign lord, his father, authority and anger, were not worth his care any more. It was as if he had been born to liberate the queen. The memories were humid and stifling for both of them, and despite the lightness of the queen's dress he still felt it was too thick for them. But he was rejected before the final step - yes, he had just lied to his father. In the midst of his dizziness, he turned to offer to take her away into the night and was again refused. The queen said she wanted a real marriage, it could be simple, but it had to be real. She wanted to be the duchess of Normandy, and after that, everything hers would be his.

He had given the queen his promise and for a moment felt like the most marvelous man in the world - and the most foolish. Henry burst out of the water and breathed heavily, feeling cooler than he had ever been since he had gone to Paris - and never so calm. It must all be because the heat had made himself dizzy.

After the heat had temporarily subsided, he didn't feel as eager to get his hands on that woman. Was it really worth it? What if he really did offend the king with Eleanor, incurring endless misfortune and, more importantly, the wrath of his father?

He looked at Geoffrey, who was just a short distance away, rubbing himself. The royal Normans were short, stout, and prone to obesity, and he had been somewhat sorry to discover as a child that he seemed to follow in his mother's footsteps. But his father's appearance had been almost flawless from the time he could remember, handsome but not feminine, athletic but not bulky. Saving the famous red-golden hair now dulled with time, other parts remained largely as it had been in his youth. It was still almost an incredible body for a middle-aged man approaching forty years of his age. Henry watched as the golden sunlight streamed down along the lines of Geoffrey's muscles and a sudden sharp sourness strike him. Somehow it occurred to him that the moment they had both just stepped into the royal palace of Paris, Eleanor's eyes had fallen on Geoffrey first - and then ...... probably even some more time later, on him.

Before he realised that it was jealousy, another thought stopped his indignation. If he had married a mature woman, instead of a little girl who makes him have to wait ten years, then he himself would have been a father in his twenties, like Geoffrey, and then in less than forty, what happy times he would have had with his own son playing in the river like this! Between sweet complacency, marrying the duchess of Aquitaine suddenly became no more of a treason, less alien to the link of love between father and son, between men. He was perfectly capable of having both Geoffrey and Eleanor ......

"What are you giggling at, little brat?" He was almost knocked into the water by the oncoming wave, and by the time he had woefully adjusted his weight, Geoffrey was in front of him, "I'm asking you to have a swimming race with me, what now, are you scared?"

"Damn you, who's afraid? Just swim!" Henry suddenly leapt up and jumped on top of Geoffrey, "But before that ......" with a cheerful laugh and the sound of a huge splash, father and son fell into the water.

 

 

As he collapsed into bed, Henry only vaguely felt that there was something strange about the day, but couldn't put his finger on it. He had beaten his father in the evening swim, proudly boasting that the years had not been kind to him and that he was, in any case, the energetic young man. At dinner, Geoffrey left the table without having eaten , saying that he was drowsy and wanted to rest. Being an old man, after all. Henry thought with a slight smile. When he tried to extinguish his father's portion of the meal, he wondered what would happen if he woke up in the middle of the night without food, and just kept pouring wine from the jug. One glass after another, he expressed the pleasure of the day - half from the relief of having the secret out his mind, and half from the realization that he had found the best of both worlds.

Now, not even wanting to cover himself with the blanket, he stretched out in the coolness of the midnight air, and in no time at all was pushed into dreamland by the strength of his drink. In his dream he was no longer alone in his bed, but with the very woman he had longed for. The queen of his dreams - the former queen - had been spared the burden of her clothes and was unreservedly displayed before him. They knew no day or night, and their sweaty hands kept touching each other ...... Then he and Eleanor were crowned King and Queen together at Westminster Abbey, and at the coronation he announced that he was creating a strange title for his own father that had never been created before, and that all Englishmen who saw him were to address him respectfully as "the most reverend grand duke the King’s Father" ...... Shortly afterwards, he saw Geoffrey proudly holding a infant baby high above his head, announcing that he had his first grandchild, and how much the child looked like himself... ...and again, as if a long time had passed, himself standing before the gates of the palace to bid farewell to his father who had departed for Jerusalem. He was wearing a crown and crying with burst of tears, Eleanor standing by his side, was wiping his tears. Strangely enough, the image of Geoffrey was always the middle-aged man as he was now. He felt vaguely unreal, but he still could not control himself and kept crying out to his father not to leave him ......

"No, father! ......" he woke up with a hoarse scream of his own, it was dusk outside the window and he had surprisingly passed out through the day - or at least a day - through his hangover. In a trance he couldn't tell if the echoes in his ears were coming from a dream or reality. At the same time, his bedroom door was burst open by a group of knights: 

"Your Highness, you, you must go to see your father ......!"

He felt a sharp pain in his chest and jumped out of bed, rushed out of the door as a knight hurriedly grabbed a cloak to cover him so that he would not go to his father unclothed.

 

"What is all this about!?" The duke of Normandy, wrapped in only a cloak, stood in the doorway and shouted at several priests holding censers and balms, "Who called you in? That’s treason! Do you not understand? " He felt around his waist and realised that not only did he not have a sword belt, but he was wearing only a cloak over his dishevelled shirt, so he kicked the nearest cleric instead and was pulled back by several knights, "Get out! Get the damn out, all of you!"

The priests looked on in disbelief, but it was fortunate that the Last Sacrament was over, otherwise they would have feared for the duke's eternal soul. These troubling young knights, having heard the contents of the will, could not resist pulling the young duke over, and one can only imagine the chaos that would have ensued. But their work was done in the vision of God.

"It was me ...... who ask them to come." A dry, mute voice came from behind the crowd. The count of Anjou on the bed gestured, and the priests fishtailed out, leaving the room suddenly filled with the restless and noisy group of lay people.

"What is this, what is wrong with you, father?" Henry practically flung himself on his knees at the head of Geoffrey bed and instinctively touched his forehead with his hand, "Ah, so hot! Why?!" He was so alarmed that he lost his words for a moment. Thinking of that day of swimming at the river, the sun and the heat. But then his father was all as usual; no, no, he said he was hot, and did seem to be weaker than usual; did he sweat? Could it have been from then on ......

"I'm dying, son." Geoffrey said, amazed at how calm he was. This was due to the fact that I had accomplished the mission that God had entrusted to me well.

"No, no, you're not going to die!" Henry grabbed his arm in a death grip and shook him hard, as if he was talking nonsense and was shaking him awake himself. "Why do you call it the Last Sacrament, ah, those priests are expecting you to die so they can get the endowment, aren't they!"

That is why I did not want to call you in the first place; at least I still want to ensure the peace of my soul in the eternity. Count of Anjou sighed inwardly. The fever made it take all his strength to even raise his eyes, but he pushed on, seeing his son's expression, which could almost be described as laced with anger, as if he were wrestling with an unknowable fate. But he had more important things to say now.

"The donation, yes, it's none of your business. But there's something else in the will. I wish to leave......" his throat slid, finding no saliva in his mouth to swallow, "...... Anjou and Maine for your younger brother."

"No!" Henry jumped up in excitement almost as if defending against an attack, "No!"

Geoffrey looked at his son sadly: "For that woman?"

"......" Henry bit his lip and said nothing, and it was then that he realized with a start that his father had grown pale and dry overnight, that the man who had been as fit as a demigod in the sun seemed to be a being of another world. He still could not persuade himself to believe it. Why, when he thought of the equally pale and frail king he had seen in Paris who had survived the illness, was his own father not much older than him? Simply because he was not an anointed king blessed by God? But he was his father, the father of the future king! "You will not die yet!" He finally threw out a sentence half-heartedly to himself, merely reassuring himself.

"I am dying, and of that I know as well as God." Geoffrey said, meeting the grey eyes of the Norman, "I have brought you up as a Norman, you were born to rule Normandy and England ......"

"A Norman?" Henry was suddenly stunned, "I was never just a Norman, you know that."

"You are the grandson of King Henry of England. Your name, everything you have learned since you were a child, is of a Norman." And at the expense of your parents’ happiness, this marriage for your birth. But there's no need to say it like that.

"Grandfather ......" said Henry, "then you must know how joyful grandfather was when he heard of my birth. But as soon as he saw me, he made the depressing comment 'the boy looks too much like his father'." He knelt down again, this time no longer excited.

Geoffrey smiled: "All the Normans would be depressed by that, they would not accept the count of Anjou ruling them, they have never been ruled by a foreigner. It is the Norman blood in you veins that makes them willing to put up with my rule for a while ...... that is why you should give up Anjou."

"Ask yourself how could I give up the other half of the blood in my veins." Henry said, tears glistening in his eyes, "You want me to pretend I'm not your son just to suit others’ wish. I have never done that, and will not ever."

Your mother ...... has always been pretending not to be my wife. Geoffrey thought, but he touched Henry's hand, which already had a thin layer of calluses on it.

"...... Alright. Delete that sentence." He said.

"But, but this will was made in the sight of God." The clerk standing in the corner made a feeble protest under the vicious red eyes of the duke of Normandy.

"No harm in that. I'm already dying anyway." The count of Anjou said, looking around and noticing that one of those young knights who had rushed out in search of the duke of Normandy was missing, the one who happened to know his second son better, and who would report to his master the mistaken good news ...... there would be a sibling rivalry, which was sort of the fate of the Angevin family. He let out a deep sigh and closed his eyes.

"Father, father, Eleanor ......" Henry, seeing that Geoffrey had relented in the matter, tried tentatively to take advantage of the situation, but found no response, and he faltered and felt his nostrils, which were all right for the moment.

 

Night fell and the room was lit with candles. The doctor who had been thrown out by the count of Anjou earlier was invited back by the duke of Normandy, tossed in front of him for a while, and finally offered dryly that he could bleed the count and bet. Henry waved his hand impatiently, and after some manipulation he got nothing but a small bowl of blood and his father's even paler face.

"Useless, all a bunch of useless rubbish!" The duke stomped his feet in place, hating to smash the bowl on the ground, but it was his father's blood in it after all, "Get out of here, all of you!"

Geoffrey grunted a few times at the soreness in his arm. He let his son run amok because he knew Henri's temper and always had to let him die out.

Henry vented in place and turned back to the bed, his face looking little better.

"Should I invite my lady mother to come?"

"I have begged God and St. Julian to cut my misery short ...... she can’t catch up." It was truly the wife's duty, thought Geoffrey, but why should she trouble herself to come to witness his miserable appearance at the last moment, while in the prime of his beautiful youth she had already found herself disgusted for accomplishing her work? "Son, I have to confess something to you. You must listen."

"Do speak, father."

"Seven years ago ......," said Geoffrey, who for a moment found it somewhat difficult to speak, or did not know where to begin, "I went to Paris for the first time to seek the king's recognition for duke of Normandy. In those unseen corners of the garden, I met Queen Eleanor." He saw his son's face turn white as a thunderbolt strike him, "just like you did last month."

"No, it's not true!You must be trying to make up a story so you can scare me off!" Henry's mind went blank with a buzz, what, was he not only interested in his sovereign's wife, but also trying taking possession of his father's mistress ......

Geoffrey pursed his dry, cracked lips and strained to silence his son with a gesture: "Listen. At the time I also thought it was very romantic and ...... exciting to have an affair with the wife of my lord. But it was not so ......" he gathered his thoughts and tried to make the stakes clear to the shaken Henry in as few words as possible, "I soon understood that the queen had grown tired of the king. We flattered each other, but when I offered my ...... 'affection', she firmly rejected me. For I told her that I was only taking Normandy for you for some kind of regency. She lost interest in me immediately and did not date me privately any longer ...... even had not asked if I intended to divorce your mother." He looked at Henry, who was still jaw-dropped, not yet understanding the reason for these words.

"I was then duke of Normandy and count of Anjou. The duke of Normandy was above all other noble men saving the king himself. And Anjou was next to Aquitaine and could protect Aquitaine from the king who would seek revenge ...... Don't you see why the queen came to us in turn?" Geoffrey said at length, "Queen Eleanor is not the kind of stupid woman who can't guard her skirts from men , and you are being calculated by her. If I am right, you two have not gone ‘that’ far ...... and she will not give her ‘nobility’ away like that, until she has the title of duchess of Normandy. Though she is not a chaste woman either."

"I don't believe it!" The duke of Normandy said dryly, dumbfounded by the realization of his earlier brave lie.

"What am I lying for as a dying man?"

"What I don't believe is ......," Henry said at last, confused by his own words, "she's just trying to count on me ...... "

Geoffrey sighed, "So you believe she loves you."

"We indeed aim for each other's wealth and title ...... but we also love each other." Henry said, more or less embarrassed, "So I think she's the woman who deserves me."

"You don't understand, you don't even understand ......" Geoffrey tried to say something, but felt a violent dizziness and took a few feeble breath, which frightened Henry who immediately attached himself to observe his condition.

"You don't understand, my silly son......" he finished his words through clenched teeth as he strained to grasp his own child's hand "It's worse than not loving......than me and your mother, worse ......"

"Father, why, father!" Only the count of Anjou was once again struggling on the verge of unconsciousness from exhaustion. The duke fumbled about trying to feed him a little water, and apart from spilling most of it on himself and the sheets, it only did a useless job, and he had to put his father back on the bed again and get up in a state of loss.

He himself had still not dripped or eaten a single meal since that hangover, and it was only after the depression of frustration that he realised he was thirsty and hungry. But he found it hard to swallow after just two mouthfuls, and after two torturous circles around the room, he began to sulk with himself again, answered only by the muffled thud of his fist on the wall. So far he had not really felt sadness, but more annoyance, anger at the suddenness of all this happening to him. But with no one around and only his father's strained breathing coming through the night, he suddenly lost all caution - his anger was a defence in itself. He sat down on his haunches in dismay, wiped his eyes and found that he could not wipe away the liquid that had flooded him from the collapse of the dike. He then buried his face in his knees and allowed the liquid, so foreign to him, to wet his clothes, only still careful not to let the sick man hear his weak voice.

In his helpless sorrow, the Duke thought to the long darkness, he seemed to care for nothing else anymore. If only he could make a miracle happen, he vowed to God and to his father's patron, Saint Julian, that he would renounce Eleanor of Aquitaine and instead obey his father's wish to marry the king's daughter, or some other woman. For a moment he was startled by his determination, as if he had watched the queen's disappointment, chiding him for not actually being the kind of mature man she saw in him, but he waved his hand in his head to dispel the queen's vision. God, hear the prayer of an obedient son. Or even for me to give Anjou up. He thought to himself. Feeling more or less comforted and at peace, he curled up and went to sleep, thinking of Geoffrey miraculously standing up and picking himself up off the floor as he had done when he was a boy.





In the middle of the night he woke up because he heard someone shouting "Father!" and was awakened, but this time not by himself. He was so tired that he slept without dreaming.

"Father! Why ...... why did you throw me to the Normans?" Henry opened his eyes to find it was his father in bed talking in his sleep, "You threw out your children to the Normans like fish bait, first my sisters, then me, after that you leave us far away for good ......"

Henry walked over to the bed and tested his forehead with his hand, burning. It was late at night, as it would have been. He wrung out the dampened towel and placed it on Geoffrey’s forehead, better than nothing, at least than doing nothing himself.

"Saint Julian of Le Mans, receive your miserable child." Geoffrey suddenly said, his body struggling as if he were wrestling with an unseen ghost.

"I decree that henceforth Saint Julian of Le Mans shall also be worshiped in England and Normandy." Henry attached himself to try and hold the rolling body down, when the doors were opened again and the count's voice clearly attracted more anxious people who had been up all night, all seemed ready for the doomed moment. Henry could no longer care less about the people behind him mingling in their own minds, "I command. It's okay, pa." He said softly, more or less choked up, in the same name he used when he was babbling.

Geoffrey seemed to quiet down immediately and hummed a few times. Soon it was murmured again, "Maud ...... Empress Matilda ...... Aethelic? You always thought I don't know this English name of yours ...... in fact I knew it from the beginning, as early as I knew you don't like me ...... when you were in your elder brother, earl of Gloucester's arms, complaining why you were forced marry to a mere little count, he used that name to called you." He paused abruptly for a moment before continuing, "Gloucester, well, he was almost the only one I liked at your father's court. He taught our Henry well. If he had not been a bastard, he would have been the king, pity for him. If that were the case, we would not have had to force ourselves to marry each other."

"Pa, what are you, what are you talking about ......", momentarily confused as to whether this was gibberish or intentional, Henry asked, bewildered, as he held his hand.

As if had heard him, Geoffrey said, "But we will never have a better child than Henry. Therefore, we do not need to resent each other." And with those words he fell back into the silent stupor.

Some of the older knights and vassals could not bear to see their old master die and turned their backs and whimpered, while the young duke continued to rub his cold hands together, trying to slow down the process, and so it went on until morning. Henry saw the light of the candle danced a few times on his father's face before it was extinguished, and the light and shadows made it seem as if he had come back to life.

"Pa, you ......" he whispered, and Geoffrey really broke off his breath, his eyelids fluttering open and slurring, "A snake, a snake."

"Where is the snake? There is no snake here." Henry looked around, the room was clean, no snake in sight, and all of a sudden he felt a grip tighten on his hand, he felt a tremor and looked back at the bed to find his father's lax eyes open, looking across himself to the end of the bed. They were hardly the eyes of a living man as if they were the withered bones of a man pulled halfway back from purgatory. "No, no, pa, don't scare me ......! Don't scare me ......!"

Geoffrey had tried hard to align his pupils with his son, his gaze just involuntarily past him towards the end of the bed. There loomed a woman, her long red hair as bright as blood, resting on her chest. The lower half of her body was of a serpent, cozily wrapped around the edge of the bed. Now he knew why he had been pulled violently back from the brink of death. The half-snake female demon. When he had previously been ostracised as a barbarian by the Normans for this ancestral red hair, he had come up with this story in return, only to be met with even more violent ridicule. The Normans couldn't believe how one could claim his ancestry to be a demon with a damp, icy snake tail, preferring human heroes wielding battle axes, or at least some fantastic creatures with heroic spirits. But it was true. The count of Anjou thought to himself that before the Angevins died, the banshee would return to them to reveal a secret they most desperately wanted to know.

He spoke, breathlessly, the prophecy he had been ordered to utter: "I saw you crowned King of England with a woman ...... If it is yours, I cannot prevent you from it."

"There's no woman here, there is anything other than woman ......" a panicked Henry just felt the words cutting into his ears like knives, unable to comprehend the meaning of the words, not even understanding what he was saying himself, only knowing that with each word he said, he was one step closer to death One step closer to death, "Damn that woman whoever she is ...... Pa, don't, don't ......"

"Go with my blessing." The count of Anjou only felt the world grow darker as the huge, slippery serpent's tail coiled from his feet to his throat, "But ...... but you will eventually return to Anjou ......" The red-haired serpent laughed with satisfaction and opened its blackened wings to block out the sun. The last scene he saw was a pair of eyes with tears in them, the eyes of a Norman. He was still rubbing his hands in vain, trying to slow the coldness of his skin with his own heat.

"Pa, that’s not funny......you just promised me a few days ago that you would be there for my coronation and wedding. No......there is no wedding......no wedding......". The duke of Normandy clumsily broke the count of Anjou's fingers into his own hand once and for all, pretending to have a tight grip, "No wedding, no wedding ......" He repeated, shivering, fighting nature over and over again, and with each pass the count's fingers would be stiffer than the last, and the duke's would be more feeble. It was not until the laws of nature had declared to the young duke that the mortal man could not do beyond his capacity that he finally let them go, and a hoarse wail broke out from the silent crowd.

 



 

Epilogue

"What has my son the duke sent me again?" Empress Matilda leaned languidly on her throne, her grizzled hair still tied in two braids hanging down in front of her according to the old rules of her father's time, as luxurious and heavy as the emperor's crown, "Read it for me."

Arnulf, Bishop of Lisieux, was just about to open the wax seal when he suddenly stopped his hand: "Your majesty, the duke has written on it that you must open it yourself."

"What else is there but for me to go with you also to Lisieux to attend his meetings, lord bishop. Oh, perhaps their trip to Paris has also given me a charming daughter-in-law for all Normans to see." The empress rose and smiled a little, taking the envelope from the bishop's hand. Before opening it, she couldn't help but touch the image of Henry, Duke of Normandy, on the wax seal.

The bishop saw the smile on the empress's face suddenly go cold with her gaze, her hair braid trembling slightly with her body, before she violently clutched the parchment in her hand and turned her back, breathing heavily.

"Your majesty, what's wrong?"

"Lord bishop, cancel the meeting in a few days, there is no more meeting. Not for a while." The empress said, her voice breaking. Arnulf had understood that the letter was probably some kind of bad news, and instinctively wanted to come forward to assist her, or to call for her ladies-in-waiting to come and help her retreat to her inner chamber for rest. But the empress only turned her back and wandered a few steps in place, her pace slow and firm, until the train of her over-long skirt trailed back and forth across the floor, nearly tripping her, and it was clear that her mind had wandered from there. But the bishop thought to himself that it would help to restore her spirits not to inquire, but to wait for her to say it herself.

After a moment of uncertainty, Empress Matilda turned around, only to see in a flash the large group of people who had been summoned in silently by the bishop, looking at her in confusion. Her parchment was almost crumpled by itself, and she had not noticed the influx of so many people into the room. If she had been so distracted while fighting in England, she would probably have been dragged out of the castle already.

Well, those thrilling, and fearful times, when the earth and heaven could turn upside down, man from king to traitor in one night. Back then, her husband was never there for her, and it made her feel like she was hardly a woman anymore ......

The empress said, "I am here to announce to all the clergy and lords loyal to us that my son, Duke Henry, has just written to say that his father, the former Duke of Normandy, Count Geoffrey of Anjou and Maine, passed away a few days ago due to a sudden high fever."

The crowd erupted in sighs, the laymen in Norman French, the clergy in Latin. All drew the cross and bowed their heads.

The bishop of Lisieux stepped forward, wanting to offer suitable consolation, but hesitating whether he should use those words of comfort for the noble widows. Until just now, the empress had still not said that the count of Anjou was her husband. As a former empress, she would never have called herself the countess of Anjou - she did not even call herself the former duchess of Normandy.

"My son Henry must be devastated with grief." The empress spoke again, still somewhat distracted. "Although the count of Anjou will not get to see his offspring crowned king of England, the whole world will know that he has raised a great king." The empress paused, out of breath, and repeated. "My son Henry would certainly be drowned by sorrow ."

The bishop thought to himself that she had finally uttered what it felt like to be a widow again, if only indirectly in such a way.

"Count Geoffrey was once duke of Normandy and the Normans were obliged to attend his funeral." The bishop said.

"Well." The empress nodded, "Loyal Normans, any of you who wish to attend may go with me. The weather is hot and there is no time to lose. We will leave tonight."

The bishop said, "Unless we travel by all day and night. Otherwise we will only be able to deliver the sacrifice and not make the funeral. The duke will want to bury his father as soon as possible."

"Then we travel day and night. I must see Geoffrey one last time, he is my ......" The bishop spotted the empress's unblinking red eyes, eyes that had finally become a little tender beneath the watery glow, though these eyes were still staring ahead.

"He's my…… old friend."

 

END


神猫罗尼休

奥黛丽•赫本在电影《巴黎假期》中的一套化装舞会造型。她装扮成一个十五世纪中期的法国贵妇,身着白色织锦与黑色天鹅绒的长袍,戴了一个特别大的尖顶汉宁帽,整体效果确实很有那味,让我能够想象出那位传奇的法国美人阿涅丝•索雷尔是什么模样了。

奥黛丽•赫本在电影《巴黎假期》中的一套化装舞会造型。她装扮成一个十五世纪中期的法国贵妇,身着白色织锦与黑色天鹅绒的长袍,戴了一个特别大的尖顶汉宁帽,整体效果确实很有那味,让我能够想象出那位传奇的法国美人阿涅丝•索雷尔是什么模样了。

Amy-Jo_

【HP祖世代文】无人区香颂 Chapter 4

三个月,玛格丽特享受了两次婚礼——她自己的婚礼。


就连狄伦·汤普森自己也不知道是怎么回事,而这多亏了她玛格丽特把一切压在赌注下的决心!


九月她秘密动身去了英格兰德文郡,哈尔莫尼娅·德·敏西-波平顿——现在已经姓巴罗了优雅地朝她微笑。


玛格丽特揣着手,除了马克西米连很久没有哪个巫师这样亲切对待她了,对她“原属于的那个世界”的短暂回归感到愉悦。


“让我有办法得到狄伦的爱吧,哈尔莫尼娅!什么都行,药水,或者黑魔法!但不要迷情剂。”


哈尔莫尼娅·巴罗依然眼角含笑。


之后是一场罪恶。


可那时她还是天真的少女...

三个月,玛格丽特享受了两次婚礼——她自己的婚礼。


就连狄伦·汤普森自己也不知道是怎么回事,而这多亏了她玛格丽特把一切压在赌注下的决心!


九月她秘密动身去了英格兰德文郡,哈尔莫尼娅·德·敏西-波平顿——现在已经姓巴罗了优雅地朝她微笑。


玛格丽特揣着手,除了马克西米连很久没有哪个巫师这样亲切对待她了,对她“原属于的那个世界”的短暂回归感到愉悦。


“让我有办法得到狄伦的爱吧,哈尔莫尼娅!什么都行,药水,或者黑魔法!但不要迷情剂。”


哈尔莫尼娅·巴罗依然眼角含笑。


之后是一场罪恶。


可那时她还是天真的少女玛格丽特,蜷缩在一角发抖,刚才血淋淋的魔鬼祭奠,削肩女人熟练的操作……



结婚后便是离别。


新婚夜里狄伦不停向自己十六岁的夫人解释什么这是苏格兰和佛罗伦萨的学术较量……玛格丽特将愤怒和不满用甜甜的笑容掩饰得很好,抚摸他浅棕的卷发。第二天一早他就垮上马背走人。


这是她现在对狄伦唯一清晰的印象,她坐在黑色沙发上拇指抵住眉头,好在倾诉对象终于来了——那是一个美第奇。


罗德曼妮斯·美第奇依然是浑身透露着漫不经心与轻蔑,露肩的拜占庭风格裙使瘦削、锁骨和雀斑袒露无疑,偏男性化的面部线条、上挑的眉峰都显得很不协调,偏偏还是二十一岁还没嫁人。


罗德曼妮斯尖酸刻薄,好像和哪个可怜人定婚他们都会遭遇不测,玛格丽特轻浮感性,对调情、婚礼乐在其中——总之都是男人的扫把星。


“明天我就结婚了,嫁巴斯。”


“我想还没谁是不知道的吧,汤普森夫人。可怜的狄伦·汤普森先生此刻也许还在甲板上眺望,微笑着幻想与自己的妻子鸳梦重温。”


玛格丽特知道她的脾性,不多理会接着说下去,“巴斯也给那个法国佬,海伦·德·唐代斯送了邀请函,我真的很讨厌她!把自己塑造成戏剧里的女主角,嗯?”


“我嫉妒那些法国长棍面包。”她换了一个最舒适的姿势,手指抠着沙发破烂处的海绵,“我看着她把它们掰碎,抹上黄油,慢慢的浸在碗里。让它们漂浮,渐渐张开,在深红色的重量下下沉,然后又在她唇齿愉悦的光芒中再次复活。”


“我知道我没有按我应该做的去——可又有什么办法呢,罗德曼妮斯,我可做不到为了什么空无的女公爵称号,和政治、主义、思想打交道!那会失去很多乐趣,舞会和爱欲!天呐,德·唐代斯简直是死人啊!”


“你知道这种感觉吗,贯穿整个童年和青春的爱恋和追求,他反过来同意时,自己却对他毫无感觉了。我的灵魂被黑发魔鬼吸走啦!”


要是和第二天的婚礼相比,她此刻的大呼小叫根本不算什么。


妖艳红唇扭动着,手指轻拨那盆刚搬来的紫罗兰,榛色眼睛近乎贪婪地俯视辉煌大厅中,沉重的裙摆在女人们娇弱身躯的灵活协调下飞驰、旋转。一千根黑莓蜡烛被堕天使烛台呵护在手心,烛光毫不留情地投向其中不为人知的各种丑态,向它的新女主人通报——包括可以当众打嗝,与男人哈哈大笑,穿粉色泡泡袖的德·唐代斯和不断发出鸭子般笑声,脱掉鞋子跳圆圈舞的未婚女孩们——她此刻已全然忘了曾经她也是其中的一员,心里频频咒骂:“完全是一群矮脚猫啊。”


她猛然将指尖把玩的紫罗兰紧紧掐住,由于裙撑太紧而呼吸急促。


角落处出现一个不该来的人。裁剪合身的绸衬衫贴在清瘦的肩上,白净的脸旁若无人朝向窗外的湖面。


“您怎么了,夫人?”女仆放下花盆,低声询问。

玛格丽特身体止不住颤动。


“是这些紫罗兰弄得您不舒服吗?”


“唔,一定是的。”巴斯突然出现,装出一副若有所思的样子,竭力隐藏笑意,“把花搬走吧。”


巴斯饶有趣味看着她的怒目而视,又拍了拍手:“下一曲苏格兰舞,我想请汤普森先生和冯·哥达夫人做开场。”


她真想杀了他!


两人十分尴尬,不约而同把后面的高潮部分省去了。


“我用什么才能留住您。”他生硬地接住她的腰,借这个机会在她耳边低吟。


“我想是连蜜月也没有的婚姻,汤普森先生。”她已经想象到巴斯幸灾乐祸的表情。


“我给你瘦落的街道,绝望的落日,荒郊的月亮。”


“先生,注意言行。”



新婚第二天,她在伯爵府踱步,巨大的耳环弄得叮当响,更加心烦意乱。


“你知道我的丑事,你全知道,煞费苦心安排了一出喜剧,男女主角经历苦难后重逢共舞,我是不是应该跪倒在你面前哭着感谢你呀,啊?”


巴斯一身花花公子打扮,依然在低头做风筝,油嘴滑舌地说:“哎呀,女人都是优柔寡断的嘛,你是想见他一面的,是不是?那好啊,你还想跳舞,我就让你跳。我留给你一晚上的时间怀旧,从今天开始生活全部翻篇,我会好好把你培养的……”


留下她一人生着闷气。


巴斯说的没错,不到半个月她就学会把府上所有账目核对得很清楚。除此还帮他抄写文件,尽管她很不耐烦。所以巴斯后来甚至把半个检察工作都交给她。


羊皮纸被暴躁地扔在他桌上一堆自制的小玩意旁。


“完成了?”


“当然。”





Mapko-Q的小屋
那里插着一柄宝剑…凡能将其从石...

那里插着一柄宝剑…凡能将其从石台中拔出者,便是英格兰全境之王。

——托马斯·马洛礼爵士《亚瑟王之死》

那里插着一柄宝剑…凡能将其从石台中拔出者,便是英格兰全境之王。

——托马斯·马洛礼爵士《亚瑟王之死》

神圣罗马帝国驻华使馆

丝绸之国与希望之乡——中世纪德国文学中的中国形象探析

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那片無名海_

玫瑰爱人

⭕背景是中世纪欧洲

⭕小学生文笔 随便写写 不喜可划走

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   盛大的贵族舞会上充斥着动听的歌曲声和欢笑声,成双成对的年轻人与自己的心上人在宴会舞动着。可没人知道他们看似平和的面具下隐藏着怎样的心思


  如同这舞会一般,华丽的外皮下包裹着的究竟是糖果还是炮弹


  卡斯帕伯爵也不例外,为了自己家族的荣誉和利益不知自己手上沾染了多少人的鲜血


  但在他眼里这些人只不过是他通往权势路上的垫脚石罢了...


⭕背景是中世纪欧洲

⭕小学生文笔 随便写写 不喜可划走

——————————————————————


   盛大的贵族舞会上充斥着动听的歌曲声和欢笑声,成双成对的年轻人与自己的心上人在宴会舞动着。可没人知道他们看似平和的面具下隐藏着怎样的心思


  如同这舞会一般,华丽的外皮下包裹着的究竟是糖果还是炮弹


  卡斯帕伯爵也不例外,为了自己家族的荣誉和利益不知自己手上沾染了多少人的鲜血


  但在他眼里这些人只不过是他通往权势路上的垫脚石罢了


  他惯会玩弄人心了,看着那些低贱的奴隶被活活虐死是他最大的乐趣



   这个世界只有强者才配活着



   

   后来不知过了多久 ,卡斯帕伯爵的家——塞斯庄园失火了 人们都在一旁冷冷地围观着,没有一个人去帮忙,卡斯帕伯爵先生也没能幸免于难


  “这是他应有的报应”那些贵族你一嘴我一言地讨论着



  大火烧了三天三夜,那个令人闻风丧胆的卡斯帕伯爵先生和他最引以为傲的塞斯家族随着这场大火化为了灰烬



 可谁都不知道那晚庄园到底发生了什么——


   那是他最爱的恋人——弗朗辛小姐亲手放的火,他怎么会逃呢




  卡斯帕走到了客厅中央的钢琴旁,不紧不慢的谈起了弹了起来,那钢琴上放着的是弗朗辛小姐最喜欢的玫瑰花




  大火迅速包围了客厅,直至那火苗攀附上他手指的前一刻他仍在弹着弗朗辛小姐最喜爱的钢琴曲



  那鲜艳的红玫瑰一点一点被火苗吞噬  华丽的灯柱从房顶重重落下 摔成了好几块碎片 犹如卡斯帕对弗朗辛破碎的爱




  


memory+

随笔

伴随淅淅沥沥雨翻飞而来的是一张微微泛黄的信笺,白色信纸压有金边,华丽的哥特式字体神圣而又野蛮的诡异,透过信纸,仿佛能够看到那位身着墨色紧身长袍,胸前系着圆形斗篷的少年浅浅的笑意,高卢玫瑰开了,你的鸢尾邀你同赏……

淅淅沥沥的雨仍是绵延,"对不起,我错过了花期……"

枯枝,废墟,巫术的传闻使玫瑰花窗破碎,鸢尾只是鸢尾。

"扒下她那男子的皮囊,烧死她,烧死这个丑陋的巫婆"听,是义正言辞的审判,而这个时代本就没有玫瑰。

#中世纪#(非历史)

伴随淅淅沥沥雨翻飞而来的是一张微微泛黄的信笺,白色信纸压有金边,华丽的哥特式字体神圣而又野蛮的诡异,透过信纸,仿佛能够看到那位身着墨色紧身长袍,胸前系着圆形斗篷的少年浅浅的笑意,高卢玫瑰开了,你的鸢尾邀你同赏……

淅淅沥沥的雨仍是绵延,"对不起,我错过了花期……"

枯枝,废墟,巫术的传闻使玫瑰花窗破碎,鸢尾只是鸢尾。

"扒下她那男子的皮囊,烧死她,烧死这个丑陋的巫婆"听,是义正言辞的审判,而这个时代本就没有玫瑰。

#中世纪#(非历史)

兰若望

The Passion of the French according to the Fleming

【今日辱法1/1】

【是14世纪弗兰芒人为了庆祝金马刺战役弄的一些搞笑演出,译文参考思高本】

那时腓力,法兰西的国王,把他的门徒们召集在他身边,秘密地问他们:“人们说弗兰德伯爵是谁?”他们说:“有人说是查理,有人说是路易,也有人说是渎神者中的一位。”国王对他们说:“你们说我是谁?”他们中的一个,皮埃尔·弗洛特,在咨询过查理[瓦卢瓦]的意见后,说:“主啊,你是弗兰德的国王。”国王回答他说:“彼得,你是有福的,因为不是肉和血启示了你,而是我的倒霉弟弟。我再给你说:你是彼得(磐石),在这磐石上,我要建立我的国策;我要将我的弗兰德王国的钥匙交给你:凡你在地上所束缚的,在天上也要被鄙视...

【今日辱法1/1】

【是14世纪弗兰芒人为了庆祝金马刺战役弄的一些搞笑演出,译文参考思高本】

那时腓力,法兰西的国王,把他的门徒们召集在他身边,秘密地问他们:“人们说弗兰德伯爵是谁?”他们说:“有人说是查理,有人说是路易,也有人说是渎神者中的一位。”国王对他们说:“你们说我是谁?”他们中的一个,皮埃尔·弗洛特,在咨询过查理[瓦卢瓦]的意见后,说:“主啊,你是弗兰德的国王。”国王回答他说:“彼得,你是有福的,因为不是肉和血启示了你,而是我的倒霉弟弟。我再给你说:你是彼得(磐石),在这磐石上,我要建立我的国策;我要将我的弗兰德王国的钥匙交给你:凡你在地上所束缚的,在天上也要被鄙视。”

然后,国王召来他的信使们,给他们说:“你们去弗兰德, 告诉弗兰芒人说:‘凡是一国自相纷争,必成废墟,一家一家的败落。’因此如果他们要从我的王国中分离出去,我要使他们的城市变成废墟。我要挥舞我的宝剑,他们如果不做我的臣民,我就要把他们赶到海里。我要聚集他们在我身边,如母鸡聚集自己的雏鸡,在他翅翼下,这样,将只有一个羊群,一个牧人。”

因此,当他们来到弗兰德的时候,信使们告诉弗兰芒人国王命他们吩咐的话。弗兰芒人一条条驳斥了他们,说:“我们建造了辉煌的城镇,你们的国王不配自称为牧羊人。他是一条狼,因为他想让羊群被狼抓住,被狼吞噬。而我们,我们不是牛,我们害怕被上牛轭;我们不是雏鸡,我们害怕被聚集在他翅翼下,我们宁可死于剑下。因牧人更适合维持和平而不是挥舞宝剑,我们不相信任何房子会被毁灭——被毁灭的只有魔鬼本尊——或者他会为自己建一所胡瓜园中的草庐。”使者们为了他们所听见和看见的一切,正如弗兰芒人向他们说的一样,就回去报告国王去了。王遂十分忧郁;但为了誓言和同席的人,不愿食言,他召来阿图瓦伯爵和他那些同席的门徒,对他们说:“你们往普天下去,向一切受造物宣传弗兰芒人的不驯。伤他们的人的必要得救;但不伤的必被判罪。因我的名他们将要接纳魔鬼,唾弃上主。手拿毒蛇,甚或喝了什么致死的毒物,也必会受害。等你们去到弗兰德,杀死所有一半以上弗兰芒血统的人。”于是伯爵起身离开去做国王所要求的,法国人按照他们的才能,一些给了五个“塔冷通”,一些给了二个,一些给了一个;然后伯爵就动身去弗兰德了。

彼得·康尼克听说了,急忙带上一万人去见他。彼得见了他[阿图瓦],问他:“你是谁?”伯爵答道:“我就是他。问这问题的人又是谁?”彼得·康尼克说:“正是在下。”伯爵对他说:“阿门,阿门。我实在告诉你:今夜鸡叫以前,你要三次不认我。”彼得对他说:“即便我该同你一起死,我也决不会不认你。”伯爵又说:“你是彼得(磐石),在这磐石上,我要拔出我的剑,又要荡平你,在你内决不留一块四肢在你的脑袋下面,因为你没有认识眷顾你的时期。”彼得对他说:“经上写了,‘你不可杀人,因为凡持剑的,必死在剑下。’”于是这个彼得伸手拔出自己的剑,砍了伯爵一剑,削去了他的一个耳朵。伯爵对他说:“你到何时才能放过我,而让我轻松咽一下唾沫?”彼得又削了他一剑说:“你就这样答复大司祭吗?”伯爵俯伏在地祈求,说:“父啊!你如果愿意,请给我免去这杯吧!但不要随我的意愿,惟照你的意愿成就吧,彼得!”这时候正是第三时辰,遍地昏黑,直到第九时辰。在第九时辰,伯爵大声呼号说:“贝阿德,贝阿德,你在哪里,你为什么舍弃了我?”意思是:“我的马,我的马,你为什么舍弃了我?”他这样说了,就断了气。彼得遂想起伯爵给他所说的话:“我就是他。”就走出门去放声大哭起来。其中一个弗兰芒人说:“这人真在上主眼中毫无价值。”

彼得转过身来,看见皮埃尔·弗洛特,就知道他是上主唾弃的那个门徒,因为他只有一只眼睛。这一切事的发生,是为应验上主藉先知所说的话:“倘若你的眼使你跌倒,剜出它来,从你身上扔掉。”但这人远远跟着伯爵,观看结局,是为应验上主藉先知所说的话:“为你有一只眼和法国人作战,比有双眼而被弗兰芒人所杀中更好。”一个弗兰芒人又再对皮埃尔说:“你确是他们中间的,因为你也是个法国人。”皮埃尔就开始诅咒,并发誓说:“我不认得你们说的这个人。”立时没有法国人叫了。弗兰芒人强迫他和阿图瓦伯爵一起走,这样,取掉了他的脑袋,他就跟随阿图瓦伯爵走了。

法国人的尸体腐烂了,是为应验了上主藉先知所说的话:“他们的创痍溃烂流脓。”弗兰芒人看到他们的尸体,说:“你们睡下去吧!休息吧!心神固然切愿,但肉体却软弱。”野狗和飞鸟来吃了他们的肉,正应验了经上的话说:“你和你所有的法国人,都要给天空的飞鸟做食物,成为各种猛禽和野兽的食物。”一个弗兰芒人说:“让我们埋了这些法国人的尸体,免得民间发生暴动。”彼得·康尼克说:“不可把他们埋在大地、海洋和树木中,等我们在他们额上,先盖上‘法国人’的印,怕他们的邻居家人来了,把他们偷去,而对百姓说:他们从死人中复活了。那最后的骗局就比先前的更坏了!”这盖了印的数目:在法国人支派盖了印的,共有十四万四千。由皮卡第支派中盖上印的有四万七千;诺曼支派二万四千;布列吞支派一万六千;普罗旺斯支派一万三千;安茹支派一万六千。还有许多其他事没有记在这部书上。过了多时,仆人的主人回来了,便与他们算账。他被警告不要回来,因为弗兰芒人正准备打仗,就由另一条路返回他自己的国去了。

燃烧长颈鹿的肖像

FLOWERS冬组 贵船纱由理(一)

    我们一家住在安格勒坎姆的一座城堡中。据说在十个世纪以前,这里曾经是祭祀阿波罗的神庙,希腊人东征时在这里留下了祭坛,本笃会的一位僧侣云游到此时,发现了这座深居于穷山僻壤的荒废祭坛,于是把它重建成了一座小隐修院,可能曾经也兴盛过一段时间,出过几位十分有德行的圣徒,引得众多朝圣者慕名而来,后来不知为何又逐渐衰败,最后被低价收购,成为了我们家族的财产。在我的印象中,我从未离开过这座城堡,但按照我母亲的说法并非如此,在我还是没有记忆的孩童时,她曾带我去意大利出席某位家族成员的葬礼。不过对于那段时光,我完全没有任何印象了。我时常想象生活在地中海沿岸的阳光下是...

    我们一家住在安格勒坎姆的一座城堡中。据说在十个世纪以前,这里曾经是祭祀阿波罗的神庙,希腊人东征时在这里留下了祭坛,本笃会的一位僧侣云游到此时,发现了这座深居于穷山僻壤的荒废祭坛,于是把它重建成了一座小隐修院,可能曾经也兴盛过一段时间,出过几位十分有德行的圣徒,引得众多朝圣者慕名而来,后来不知为何又逐渐衰败,最后被低价收购,成为了我们家族的财产。在我的印象中,我从未离开过这座城堡,但按照我母亲的说法并非如此,在我还是没有记忆的孩童时,她曾带我去意大利出席某位家族成员的葬礼。不过对于那段时光,我完全没有任何印象了。我时常想象生活在地中海沿岸的阳光下是怎样的情形——安格勒坎姆的天气总是晦暗多雨,山峦上常年笼罩着阴沉的云雾,叫人看了很容易心生忧伤。但我却并非成长为了一个多愁善感的少女,相反,我有着向往自然的天性,那幽深的森林、神秘的河流以及遥远的群山都让我觉得欣喜,我时常凝望着它们久久出神。

    我的母亲叫作伊贝丽丝·巴斯奎亚。我的父亲于我出生后不久在一场不幸的事故中殉难。自记事起,我的身边只有母亲一位亲人,因此我对她格外依恋。除此之外,我的家庭女教师方喰小姐总是待我十分和善,我从孩童时期开始就一直随她学习,从她的身上获得了诸多的安慰与力量,她也如我的亲人一般。

    方才已经向各位说过,我的生活十分枯燥乏味——每天除了随家庭教师学习,就几乎没有什么别的事情。这种平淡的生活一直持续到我十四岁那年。但在故事正式开始之前,请允许我先讲讲另一件小事,它是如此特别,以至于成为了我十四年的人生中唯一常常挂念的事。

    这件事发生在我大约九岁的时候。

    作为儿童的好奇心是无穷无尽的,我常常在这座历史悠久的城堡里闲逛。刚开始我的母亲以及仆从们试图禁止我的这种危险行为,担忧我在那幽森的地下室迷失方向,又或者从破败的塔楼上失足。但很快他们就发现根本限制不了我的行动,除非时时刻刻都紧盯着我,我因此得以自由。

       一天午课后,我又溜进了城堡西南角那座荒废的教堂——这是一座火焰式风格的哥特建筑,眼花撩乱的雕刻缀在外立面上,使得整座教堂像是在烈火中熊熊燃烧着一般。彩窗上绘着该隐弑兄的圣经故事,阳光透过红色的玻璃照射进来,映得圣坛的地面上一片血红。该隐那邪恶而狰狞的面容在阳光下模糊不清,有那么一瞬间,我觉得他正在因为痛苦而哭泣。鲜红的眼泪滴落到亚伯的尸体上,形成一片血泊。

    我登上西立面北侧塔楼的顶层。从这里眺望远方,总是令我心旷神怡:森林从山脚下铺展开来,如同墨绿色的挂毯。几条蜿蜒的河流穿插其中,又汇入远方的湖泊。更远的地方,群山环绕,像是城墙一般拱卫着这片森林和森林中央的城堡。这四周了无人烟,我视线所及之处都仿佛不在人间。只有城堡大门外有一条土路,向着正西方笔直地延伸着,一直消失在远方的群山里。

    不知不觉间,我靠在墙边睡着了。我似乎做了一个梦,这个梦是如此甜美,以至于我醒来之后还忍不住地笑起来。我还没有记起来我是什么人、在什么地方,甚至还没有想起“我”。就在梦境与现实交界之处,我睁开眼睛,看见一位少女站在我面前。我仰着头看她,这是一张东方面孔。黑色的长发被风吹了起来,在灰色的天空下飞舞。莫名的喜悦填满了我的心,我就这样坐在地上看着她。她蹲下来,抱住了我。一阵花香顿时盈满我的鼻腔——这是一种清新的香味,和城堡里平时放置的那种浓郁的花香很不同。闻着这股香气,我觉得格外心旷神怡,就在这时想起了我是紫苑·巴斯奎亚、安格勒坎姆伯爵的女儿,以及我并不认识正在拥抱我的这个人。我正想极力挣脱她的怀抱时,感到脖颈处传来一阵剧烈的疼痛,就像是被两根针深深刺破了血管,巨大的恐怖从心头升起,我还没来得及大叫出声就晕了过去。



云汉城主2.0

【读书随记】一些关于中世纪的历史知识

大号阵亡,此为补档:

[图片]

让人震惊的中世纪婚姻冷知识,原来自己一拍脑袋想出的情节竟有合理合法的历史出处

哎,可怜的一期(当然,情节还没进行到这里,你还可以再开心一会儿)

再补几张,给刀剑西幻pa增加一下历史依据

[图片]
[图片]
[图片]

中世纪教会婚姻法真的很有趣,但实在太细节、太复杂了,各种流传下的文献比失传的中国法律要细节、复杂的多,最近在写这方面的论文,写完了就回来更新,为了证明自己还活着(bushi),放点有趣的资料,上面是自己扫描的《上帝作证——中世纪基督教文化中的婚姻》这本书中的一些截图,丑丑的,勿怪,写论文期间匆忙上号,没有时间精修图片提取文字进行整理

下面是...

大号阵亡,此为补档:


让人震惊的中世纪婚姻冷知识,原来自己一拍脑袋想出的情节竟有合理合法的历史出处

哎,可怜的一期(当然,情节还没进行到这里,你还可以再开心一会儿)

再补几张,给刀剑西幻pa增加一下历史依据




中世纪教会婚姻法真的很有趣,但实在太细节、太复杂了,各种流传下的文献比失传的中国法律要细节、复杂的多,最近在写这方面的论文,写完了就回来更新,为了证明自己还活着(bushi),放点有趣的资料,上面是自己扫描的《上帝作证——中世纪基督教文化中的婚姻》这本书中的一些截图,丑丑的,勿怪,写论文期间匆忙上号,没有时间精修图片提取文字进行整理

下面是有关封君和封臣关系的一些以前整理自《西欧封建社会》的资料:



TMH
穿越到中世纪每天射射箭打打猎找...

穿越到中世纪每天射射箭打打猎找找精灵矮人猎魔人的日子应该也不错

穿越到中世纪每天射射箭打打猎找找精灵矮人猎魔人的日子应该也不错

笙绮儿今天咕稿了吗

《MILLER(米勒)》

《MILLER(米勒)》

 封君×封臣

是BL,注意避雷

个人混沌产物,设定中世纪,请勿上升历史

有私设有私设,轻点骂轻点骂


文/笙绮


“星光灼灼千里,爱意遥遥无期。”


——————


  时针缓缓走过数字十二,平日清亮的钟声却显得闷闷的。

  佤索疲惫地揉了揉太阳穴,闭上眼睛又睁开,墙壁上挂着的骑士枪反射出昏黄的烛光,黯淡的光线几乎一瞬间将他拉回到从前——


  “瓦罐!这边这边!”一头金发的男孩躲在麦垛后面兴奋地挥手,阳光透过...

《MILLER(米勒)》

 封君×封臣

是BL,注意避雷

个人混沌产物,设定中世纪,请勿上升历史

有私设有私设,轻点骂轻点骂


文/笙绮

 

“星光灼灼千里,爱意遥遥无期。”

 

——————

 

  时针缓缓走过数字十二,平日清亮的钟声却显得闷闷的。

  佤索疲惫地揉了揉太阳穴,闭上眼睛又睁开,墙壁上挂着的骑士枪反射出昏黄的烛光,黯淡的光线几乎一瞬间将他拉回到从前——

 

  “瓦罐!这边这边!”一头金发的男孩躲在麦垛后面兴奋地挥手,阳光透过树叶的缝隙洒向白皙的皮肤,恍若坠落人间的小王子。另一个浅灰色头发的男孩听到这个外号笑着晃了晃手里的骑士枪,摆出进攻的架势。记得那个时候,两个小家伙对着偷偷摸摸顺出来的骑士枪能研究一整天,再被大人们抓回去教训一顿。

 

  后来——

  

  “嗯?那把骑士枪吗?我爸之前说送给我了。”诺珀·琼斯合上手中的书,十五六岁的少年站在深色的书柜前,金色的发丝已经不像儿时那般杂乱无章,眼睛的颜色变深了,仿佛一直无意躲避着身边另一个人的视线。略显修长的手指夹着一张明信片,上面印满了金色的麦田。

 

  再后来......

 

  明天就是封授仪式了。

 

  佤索·哈里斯会成为诺珀·琼斯的封臣,就像他们的父辈那样,各自承担相应的责任和义务,以严谨的契约关系度过一生。

 

  “佤索,佤索?”呼唤声将佤索拉出回忆,那把骑士枪依旧静静地挂在墙上,附上了一层若有似无的灰尘,反射的光线也变得模糊。

  “嗯?”佤索看向从走廊那头走过来的诺珀,“有事吗?”

  诺珀不甚明显地咬了咬下唇,湛蓝色的眸子里有什么情绪在打转。

  他在原地站定,和佤索隔了一米的距离,最终还是什么也没有说。

  

  皎洁的月光平铺在落地窗前的浅色地板上,桌前金发的少年手里握着那张印着金色麦田的明信片,明信片的背面是好看的花体字签名。

 

  “Mr.Miller.”

 

   他轻轻叹了口气。心里浮上说不出的焦急和带了一丝苦涩的喜欢,同时矛盾纠结的要命。心里的想法像是夜空中若隐若现的星星,看不清,抓不住。

 

  星光灼灼千里,爱意遥遥无期。

 

  佤索心里其实很早就冒出了一种奇怪的感觉。

 

  不是多么炽热的感情,大概就是半天看不到他会有点想念,偶尔一起吃晚饭的时候会欣喜。他觉得诺珀就像个真正的王子,生来站在高位,而他也值得站在光里。只是有时候,他也会想要的更多一些。或许只是一个微笑,又或许只是一次拥抱。

 

  大概只是目及便欢喜。

 

  佤索不知道这算不算喜欢,他将是诺珀的封臣,可心底有个声音在说不甘心。

——————    

  

仪式一,合掌礼。

  佤索将手放入诺珀手中,感受到他微凉的体温,心跳莫名加速了几拍。他的小王子穿上了复杂古典的礼服,严肃庄重,他却只想对着他微笑。

 

   仪式二,亲吻礼。

   佤索上前一步,轻轻贴上诺珀的唇,看着他的瞳孔不受控制般放大,心里涌上一股莫名其妙的愉快和同样莫名其妙的沉重,像是心脏上挂了一块铅,每一次跳动都重重落下,带起柔软的灰尘,挠得人痒痒的。

 

   仪式三,臣服礼。

   佤索摘下帽子,顺从地跪下,完成了这一项最重大的仪式。

  

   他觉得自己应该高兴,成为诺珀的封臣是一件值得高兴的事,但他好像又没那么高兴。

  好像遗失了什么重要的东西,又好像有些东西悄悄地尘埃落定。

 

  只是他低下头的时候,没有看到诺珀眼睛里弥漫的水汽和微红的眼角。

 

——————

    仪式完成后,两人依照当地习俗去麦田散步。

  六月份,初夏时节已过,金灿灿的麦田一望无际。两个人都没说话,直到诺珀蓦然牵起佤索的手。

   “瓦罐,”他迟疑了一下,改口道:“佤索,佤索·哈里斯。”

    佤索有点惊讶,又好像裹在微甜的风里,手指微微颤抖着,“嗯?”

    心跳声越来越快,微微带着热意的风在两人的空隙中来回穿梭,空气此刻像是要即刻蒸发。

 

  “我爱你。”

  “好像很久之前就爱上了,对不起,我说的是不是太晚了。”

 

   不可言说的欣喜涌上胸腔,理智却将要把兴奋的神经扯断。

   不可能的,怎么可能呢??

   佤索几乎在一瞬间就从疯狂的心跳里确定了爱意,那份迷茫朦胧的感觉终于沉淀下来。但他颤抖着抽出自己的手,动作尽量做到最小,却还是刺痛了诺珀。

   金发的少年几乎是愤怒又委屈,心底压了不知道多久的情绪爆发,他痛苦地闭上眼,企图逃避。逃避这片麦田,逃避自己控制不住的爱,逃避一切。

   等回过神来,他已经把佤索压在了麦垛后面,带着情绪的吻极力克制又无比疯狂。

   彼此的心跳和体温近在咫尺,瓦索的脸颊染上绯红,他默许了这个吻。

 

  “我爱你。”

 

  千言万语凝聚成的三个字,掷地有声。

 

  星光甘愿坠落,终不再只是遥遥无期。

  

  “Mr.Miller.”

  金发顺从地俯在他耳边,诺铂轻声说出这个名字。

  “什么?我不姓米勒啊。”佤索有点莫名其妙,诺珀却扑哧一声笑了。

  “MILLER的意思是,心爱的人。”

  “MY.Mr.MILLER.”

 ——END

救命好久好久好久没写原创了

纯属是磕cp上头了(指指点点)

文笔真的菜看个乐呵 


林老狮

《最后的决斗》

调了一些喜欢的服饰和场景

《最后的决斗》

调了一些喜欢的服饰和场景

墨莉忒

坎托洛维奇《国王的两个身体》读书笔记 - 01:以基督为中心的王权

◆ 以基督为中心的王权

 

 耶稣基督


根据正统教义耶稣基督是“一位二性”(una persona,duae naturae)


第二次西班牙公会议(619年)强调了耶稣基督的“双生本性”(gemina natura),并进一步说“双生本性”仍然构成一个位格。


第六次托莱多公会议也明确认定人性和神性是一个基督的二性……以避免如果基督是“双重性位格”(geminatapersona)可能造成四位一体僭取三位一体


公元675年,第十一次托莱多公会议重新使用“twinship”这一术语,只...

◆ 以基督为中心的王权

 

 耶稣基督

 

根据正统教义耶稣基督是“一位二性”(una persona,duae naturae)

 

第二次西班牙公会议(619年)强调了耶稣基督的“双生本性”(gemina natura),并进一步说“双生本性”仍然构成一个位格。

 

第六次托莱多公会议也明确认定人性和神性是一个基督的二性……以避免如果基督是“双重性位格”(geminatapersona)可能造成四位一体僭取三位一体

 

公元675年,第十一次托莱多公会议重新使用“twinship”这一术语,只是把它从“双生本性”(gemina natura)和“双重性位格”(geminata persona)的使用小心谨慎地转用为“双生实体”(gemina substantia)上,并进一步解释说:“因此,他在自身之内拥有‘双生实体’,即神性的实体和人性的实体。”在这种关联中,公会议创造了以下经典的表述:同样地,我们应该相信他本身既是崇高的也是卑微的(Item et major et minor se ipso esse credendus est)。

 

第十四次托莱多公会议最终提出了一系列新的“双生性”。主教们这样宣称,事实上耶稣基督有一个“双生意志”——gemina in eovoluntas,et operatio(自身之内的双生意志和活动),不过,他是不可被自然的双重性分离的(non naturarumgeminatione divisus),他是完全意义上的上帝,同时又是完全意义上的人。

 

 国王

 

1100年前后,国王乃被赋予属灵品性的人这一观念刚刚绽放,还未到达全盛时期。

《论主教与国王的祝圣礼》(De consecratione pontificum et regum)的诺曼佚名著者开启了被后世称为“混成人格”(personamixta)的学说的传统:“我们必须认识到[国王身上]的双重人格,一个源出自然,另一个来自上帝的恩典……一个因他与常人无异的自然条件;另一个因他神化的显赫和圣事(祝圣礼)之力量,他超越常人。从一个人格性上讲,他依自然本性是一个个体之人;从另一个人格性上讲,借着上帝的恩典,他是基督,亦即‘上帝—人’。”

在佚名著者看来,永恒受膏者与其尘世中的对型(antitype)即有限的受膏者之间的不同,可能只有本质性的一处:基督依其自身本性便是王者(King)和基督(Christus),而他在地上的代理人是借着恩典而成为国王(king)和受膏者(christus)的。因为,当圣灵在世俗国王祝圣礼那一刻“跃入”,而使他成为“另一人”(aliusvir),使他在此世变形化身之时,不变不化的圣灵就从荣耀之王的不朽之体那里,以永恒的方式留在了世俗国王身上。换句话说,国王因上帝的恩典而在短时间内趋至(becomes)神化,而天上的王依本性就是(is)永恒的上帝。

佚名著者将“来自恩典的神化”特别用于国王身上,认为这种神化是他的膏油礼和祝圣仪式的结果,并且利用自然与恩典的对照来指出“神化的显赫”给予了国王恩典的身体,由此,他成为超越所有其他人的“另一人”,佚名著者认为这种“神化”与古希腊语中的“apotheosis”以及古罗马语言中的“consecratio”的含义相近。的确,这一对照法有利于佚名著者以非常严谨的方法把握住上帝与国王之间的内在差别;同时,对照法又有利于他模糊二者之间的分界线,并有利于表明,“依本性而是的上帝”与“借恩典而成的神”这二者之间的区分,若从“权力”(potestas)来看便不再存在。权力的本质和实体,被认为在上帝与国王身上是相同的,不论权力是依自然而来还是仅受自恩典。

佚名著者对自然本性与恩典既两极对立又潜在统一的思考,将他引向了基督化身的国王具有“双生性”存在的观念。国王,作为借恩典而成的受膏者,类似于有“双生位格 /人格”(gemina persona)的二性基督。

这是一个以基督为中心的中世纪王权观念。

 

其后佚名著者举了提比略的例子来强化说明这个观念:向提比略缴纳贡金是“向权力(potestas)而不是向人纳贡”。

坎托洛维奇进而评论:“作为人的提比略是罪恶的;但他作为凯撒是神圣的,作为权力的化身是神圣的,是‘神’(deus),而且比照耶稣来说的话他同时也是‘主’(dominus)。耶稣基督从神性来看是‘独生’(unigenitus),从人性来看是‘首生’(premogenitus),佚名著者现在把这种区分反过来也用在他的国王身上。这一难以想象、无比奇怪的交错法(chiasmus)源自两个双重身份的相遇。提比略身为(qua)凯撒的权力似乎是‘带有神圣的光环’(haloed),而作为人处于被统治地位的基督则似乎是没有光环的。与此同时,罪恶的提比略就其自然身体而言是没有光环的,然而,那位道成肉身并且个体化了的上帝,尽管只是‘隐匿的上帝’(Deus Absconditus),却甚至是作为人而带有光环的。”

同时,坎托洛维奇举了另一个例子:凶残的匈奴王兵临城下:“我是阿提拉,上帝之鞭。”主教只是回答道:“愿来的是上帝的仆人”,然后将门打开,就在遇害之前他还为侵略者喃喃赐福:奉主之名而来的当受赞美(Benedictus quivenitin nomine Domini)。主教甚至敬拜阿提拉身上的神圣王权。

 

拥护王权的历史学家威泊(Wipo)说过:“您是基督的代理,只有基督的模仿者才是真正的统治者。”枢机主教彼得·达米安(Peter Damiani)回应道,“的确,在自己的国王身上,看到的是基督在统治”。比这位主教年岁略小的枢机主教多斯德第(Deusdedit),在其教会法汇编中,收录了教皇约翰八世在一次主教会议上对加洛林皇帝查理二世的赞辞:“尘世的拯救者”(salvatormundi),“上帝立下的尘世拯救者”,“上帝立其为民众的君主,模仿真正的王者基督即圣子,……因此,他(基督)依自然本性而拥有的权力,国王通过恩典一样可以获得”。

 

在基督论的典范说里,国王一直被称为“基督的型像”(typus Christi)。这种典范说实际上隐含着国王职位有两个方面一,个是本体性的,另一个是功能性的,二者都反映在中世纪统治者经常被擢升的荣衔中:“基督的形象”(Imageof Christ)和“基督的代理人”(Vicar of Christ)。前一称号更多地指称国王的存在本质,而后一称号从法理上强调了国王的治理职能,并主要是指涉他的作为。这两个称号本身都没有特指国王的两个身体,或断言统治者和神人基督之间有任何“性体论上的”相似。但是,只要这些把统治者和基督关联起来的称号传开来,那么,国王就会以“双生人格”出现(至少潜在如此),它类似于神人二性之原型所具有的两种本性,也是所有尘世王权的原型。

 

此外,在“国王”的外延上,佚名著者还区分了国王和主教

[国王和主教]在属灵上都是“基督与上帝”(Christus et Deus);就其职位而言,他们充当“基督与上帝”的对型和形象:司祭职之司祭(the priest ofPriest),王者之国王(the king of the King):司祭充当更低职责和自然的对型,即基督的人性的对型:国王充当更高职责和自然的对型,即基督的神性的对型。

坎托罗维奇评论,佚名著者在区分“王者基督”(KingChrist)和“祭司职基督”(PriestChrist)的同时还把这种双重性变成了对照面,不仅将它等同于耶稣基督身上的神性和人性(如传统所做),也把它等同于地上的国王职位和司祭职位。

 

而延伸得更远一些,脱离国王的概念,佚名著者将这种“把身份分裂的方法楔入了所有的存在物、人或建制”:他运用了他一贯的做法,把人与大主教人与职位坎特伯雷教堂的砖石与主教座对照起来;正如在另一处他把有形的天穹与无形的天国对照起来。以同样的方式,他将罗马教皇的统一性分离开来,将教皇职位与教皇本人两相对照——我们也可以类比的方式来说——将教皇的政治身体与他的自然身体两相对照,这是职位(Office)与人格(Person)之间的区分

 

职位(Office)与人格(Person)之间的区分,早在653年雷塞文斯(Reccesvinth)国王的法律中就被着重强调,并经过伪伊西多尔教令集的传播而广为人知。在那部法律中,这位西哥特王指出,荣誉归于王权而非国王本人,不是归于国王人格之平庸,而是归于他至尊之荣誉:“法权造就国王,而不是人格造就国王。”这种区分稍加改动,出现在了席尔瓦·坎迪达的亨伯特(Humbert ofSilva Candida)写给克鲁拉里奥斯牧首(Patriarch Kerullarios)的书信中:“(教皇)因其职位类似彼得……而不是因为德性类似彼得”([Papa]qualis Petrus officio...non qualisPetrus merito)。帝国与教廷分庭抗礼期间,亨利四世皇帝在宣布废黜格里高利七世时明显将教皇职位同作为教皇个人的希尔得布兰德(Hildebrand)区分了开来

 

坎托洛维奇最后对诺曼佚名著者的观念做了总结国王人格的二重化并不是在法律或宪章中找到的,而是在神学中找到的:国王二重身份反映的是基督身上的二重本质。国王是基督在尘世完美的化身。既然国王的神圣原型同时是神和人,那么,国王即基督模仿者就得符合那个二重性;既然神圣原型同时就是王者(King)和祭司(Priest),那么,基督的王权(kingship)和祭司职(priesthood)就应该在他的代表即国王和主教身上有所反映,他们同时是“混成人格”(personaemixtae[“属灵的与世俗的])和双重性人格”(personae geminatae[依自然为人和借恩典为神])。总之,佚名著者的理论并非集中在与人相对的“职位”这一概念上,也非集中于宪制或社会的考虑,而是基督论的,并以基督为中心的。

将基督的神性解释成“职位”是不可能的,因为神性乃是他的存在。佚名著者也同样设想国王具有两种不同形式的存在:一个是自然的或个体的,另一个是祝圣过的或者(用作者自己的话说)奉若神明的和尊奉为圣的。简言之,诺曼佚名著者把国王视作“双重性人格”的看法是本体论意义上的,是作为在祭坛上执行完圣事和仪式行为的结果,这种看法本身也是礼仪意义上的。总体上说,他的看法更紧密相关于礼仪,相关于本身既是意象同时又是现实的神圣仪式行为,而非在使职上的诸权能和宪制上的诸权限之间所作的区分,也非与人相对照的职位或尊严这类概念。佚名著者的论辩,一再让两种本性相互对立,无疑会使得本体论上的整全性面临破裂的危险。佚名著者身上的那股危险能力与他那时代的理智发展是一致的。然而,我们决不能忽视佚名著者最主要的本体论基础,因为正是在它之上,佚名著者才构建出了一目了然的以基督为中心的,同时也是礼仪的王权哲学

他是奥托时代、早期萨利安时代以及英国盎格鲁撒克逊时代理念的捍卫者;他的作品实际上总结了11、12世纪的政治理念

 

 图像学

 

接下来坎托洛维奇转到图像学,以3世纪和4世纪早期的皇家钱币、“圣容”(Voltosanto)、圣高尔修道院(St.Gall)收藏的一张象牙书封、现存于达姆施塔特(Darmstadt)的一张10世纪早期的象牙书封、巴勒莫的马托拉那(Martorana)教堂的镶嵌画、《亚琛福音书》的扉画为例继续论述基督二性的观念

 

一幅被称作“圣容”(Voltosanto)的罗马风格耶稣受难像,展示了头戴王冠、身穿紫袍的受难的耶稣形象;对表达耶稣基督兼具王者和献祭的特征来说,它可能算得上最简洁的图像学表现手法。表现手法如此紧凑简洁,形象直指人心,让人直接感受到:圣容明显是“一位二性”(unopersona,duaenaturae)

 

巴勒莫的马托拉那(Martorana)教堂的镶嵌画描绘了罗杰二世(Roger II)经基督之手加冕的画面。借助罗杰与基督在面部上的惊人相似,这幅镶嵌画想让上帝在国王身上得以彰显的预期效果达到了,这也算得上是一种“双体”(Zwillingsbildung)

 

《亚琛福音书》中著名的插画,大约在973年完成于赖兴瑙(Reichenau)修道院,它表现了神圣罗马帝国皇帝奥托二世登基的场面。亚琛图稿中有不少无视艺术习惯和传统的地方。御座不是立于坚实的地面之上,与通常查理大帝和奥托时代的珍贵抄本上的国家形象有所不同。御座像是置于半空中,因为它和皇帝的整个身体被杏形光环环绕。御座实际上又是立于地上的,它由一位蹲踞的地母(Tellus)承负,地母以其手托住脚凳之腿。同时,上帝之手从天国伸下,将王冠安置于皇帝的头上,或在抚顶赐福。围绕上帝之手的神圣光环和王权的光环交错叠合,让皇帝的头置于交错光环构成的三角空间中。画像所描绘的理念是:皇帝被升举向天国(usquead celumerectus),所有地上的权力都在他之下,他自己最接近上帝。

 

这种说法来自所谓的《西班牙教规集》(Collectio Hispana)或《伊西多尔教规集》(Isidoriana),这是一部据称是由塞维利亚的伊西多尔7世纪写成的一部律法集,后来这部著作与伪托伊西多尔教令集相混淆了。说它来自《西班牙教规集》,原因很简单:只有在那部集子中我们才能发现迦克敦公会议敕令中的一处文本讹误。在这次公会议上,有一个主教谦恭地说,上帝“升举皇帝向热爱[即对信仰的热爱]”(imperatorem erexit adzelum[i.e.,fidei])。一个抄写员在抄写迦克敦信经时误读了这处文本,把adzelum改成了adcelum(向天国)

 

在《亚琛福音书》中,皇帝与基督的同化不是借助统治者与其神圣原型之间面部或性体上的相似性来实现的,而是通过基督论的和超性体的方式表现的,说得更直接点,是通过一种图像来表现的,这种图像展示了皇帝的二重性即神性和人性,用那个时代的语言来说,统治者“依自然本性为人,借恩典成神”

 

这些类似物表明,皇帝不仅是基督代理人(vicariusChristi)和世界主宰者在人间的对应形象,而且他几乎就像荣耀之王本身一样,乃真正的基督模仿者(christomimētēs)即基督的化身和代行者。这就如同神人基督将他的天国御座让与了尘世皇帝的荣耀,以使天国中不可见的王者基督(Christus)在尘世的受膏者(christus)的身上显现

 

 圣幔(THEVEIL)/天幔(Skycurtain)

 

关于《亚琛福音书》中著名插画的任何解读都无疑会从神秘的白色饰带或围巾状的有褶帐幔开始,因为它非常显眼,必定会引起观者的注意。《启示录》上代表四大使徒的活物手持饰带,其手持的方式使饰带末端刚好碰到君主的王冠。饰带褶皱处似乎分开了皇帝的身体:头部、肩和胸部处于褶皱线之上;手臂、躯干和脚位于其下。很早就有人注意到,白色饰带分开了天与地。实际上,皇帝的头部不只触及天国,而且在天国之中,或者说在诸天之上。置于脚凳上的双足由恭顺的地母(Tellus)承负。

 

白色织巾不是普通的饰带或丝巾而已,也不只是装饰性的织物。它是幔子,实际上也就是圣幔(THEVEIL),即帐幕的幔子;根据最古老的东方传统,它象征着把天地分开的天穹

 

根据《出埃及记》(26∶31以下)天幔(Skycurtain)挂于四根柱子之前。

 

9世纪《维维安圣经》、《圣保罗圣经》中,男性形象头上鼓动飘拂的幔子,直接源于古罗马天空之神(Caelus)戴在头上指示天穹的幔子

 

比德在他的作品《帐幕论》(On the Tabernacle)中,就完全同意东方评注者“幔子象征天穹”的观点。比德还提到,在一年一度的赎罪日(Day of Expiation)上,以色列大祭司会穿过会幕的幔子去献祭(《利未记》16∶12以下),他就像永恒的大祭司基督一样,能真正地“进入天国自身”。

幔子在圣殿中乃是要将圣所与至圣所隔开(《出埃及记》26∶33)。在这个观念上比德再次沿袭了传统思路,认为圣殿的分隔应该是象征了本身具二重性的教会:人类在尘世奔走,圣徒和天使居于天国。比德从这里得出了他对教会二重性的思考,因为幔子让他联想到中保耶稣基督的二性:在地上他是人子耶稣,而在永恒的天国他与上帝共同掌权。

 

奥古斯丁《〈诗篇〉释义》(Enarrationesin Psalmos)中说:“上帝的帐幔是肉身。道居于肉身之中,肉身被做成上帝的帐幔。”奥古斯丁接着说:“在这个帐幔之中,皇帝[即基督]为我们战斗(InipsotabernaculoImperator militavit pro nobis)。”

 

 巨人形象

 

在《亚琛福音书》插画中,皇帝体型明显庞大,双脚立于地上,头在天上。

 

事实上,与奥托同一时代的东方拜占庭帝国皇帝巴西尔二世,也有一幅类似的插画形象(11世纪,拜占庭抄本,巴西尔二世的凯旋),图中他像巨人一样高耸于天地之间,而被他击败的敌人蹲伏于下。

 

这个巨人形象,不仅是那些由巨型雕像所纪念的希腊、罗马或拜占庭皇帝的独特标志,也是基督的独特标志。这是早期基督教大众信仰中常见的一种特征,尤其是在诺斯替教派或幻影说教派中,它甚至可以回溯到关于亚当的一个拉比传统:“初人顶天立地。”

 

不过巨人基督的想象也是正统的。它通过《诗篇》第十八章的影响在教会中一直存在:“他如同巨人,因行他的义而喜悦。”《诗篇》的这一章后来被认为既暗示了耶稣基督的道成肉身,也暗示了他的复活升天。

 

圣安布罗斯在这种联系中把基督说成是“双生实体的巨人”(gigas geminate substantiae)

 

或许,应该把安布罗斯“双生实体的巨人”与东方对基督之头和脚的通行解释联系起来。耶路撒冷的基里尔(Cyril ofJerusalem)写道:“头意指耶稣基督的神性,而脚则意指他的人性。”

 

奥古斯丁的《〈诗篇〉释义》(EnarrationesinPsalmos)也可用来说明安布罗斯的“双生实体的巨人”。在解读《诗篇》第九十一章时,奥古斯丁慨叹:“噢,基督,在天国你端坐在天父之右,在地上却以你的手足操劳。”另有,“他[基督]远升诸天之上,而他的脚立于地上:头在天上,身体在地上。”

 

 基督升天形象的演变

 

一直以来,耶稣升天的形象是按古代神格化(apotheosis)或神迹显灵(epiphany)的形式来描绘;而现在,基督没有显现,而是消失在天国中

 

11世纪早期《班贝格福音书》(Gospels from Bamberg)里写:

Maximus ecce gigans scandit superastra triumphans(看哪,最伟大的巨人胜利地跨越群星)

 

不管怎么说,盛行于13世纪和中世纪晚期的新版升天图像,在公元1000年左右首次出现在两幅盎格鲁撒克逊抄本画中,以及希尔德斯海姆(Hildesheim)的《伯恩瓦德福音书》(BernwardGospels)中,就此与之前整个西方传统以及东方肖像学开始决裂。

 

 三分画面

 

《亚琛福音书》图像下方的四个形象分别是圣俗两界的君主们。如果最上面的画面代表“诸天之上”的领域,中间的画面代表处于天国之下而又触及了天穹的领域。那么最下方的三分之画面则明显地代表天界之下的“大地”

 

三分画面的特殊含义,在加洛林王朝时代的一些抄本中得到了印证。比如,《特里尔启示录》(Trier Apocalypse)《圣保罗圣经》以类似的方式描述了“庄严基督”(Maiestas Domini)

 

 永恒的光环

 

光环被赋予那些代表一种超个体理念或普遍观念的拟人化形象。这一特殊的区分标志表明,此形象注定是要周身尽显一种连续体(continuum)的,这种连续体不再经历沧海桑田和生老病死,是那种永久恒常者

 

诺曼佚名著者的短论中,作为“凯撒”的提比略是在光环的围绕中,反之,作为个体之人的“邪恶的提比略”,则肯定没有光环围绕。

 

埃及、高卢、西班牙这样的罗马行省,有时会伴以光环出现(例如古代末期的《百官志》[Notitiadignitatum]中就有)。实际上,与其说光环要彰显的是化身,倒不如说是要彰显个体行省的“守护神”(Genius),彰显它永续不绝的创造力和生殖力,因为“genius”一词就源自“生育”(gignere)。

 

对行省光环的分析,同样适用于一些概念或德性正义(Justitia)或审慎(Prudentia),她们是异教时代的女神,当她们以光环的形式出现在基督教艺术中时,所代表的正是永恒有效的力量或存在形式。换句话说,每当我们在英文中大写一个概念首字母,或把它的性从中性改为阴性时,我们实际上是在把这个词或概念“光环化”,彰显它作为一种理念或力量的永恒性。

 

拜占庭人曾说过,位于台伯河畔的古罗马,她那所谓“带着光环”的本质,或她永恒的“守护神”,其实已经转到了博斯普鲁斯的新罗马。意大利河岸所残存的只是砖石瓦砾,“守护神”(geniusloci)和永生早已从建筑物中消失得无影无踪。据称作于9世纪末的一首反罗马诗《罗马之殇》(Versus Romae),极为鲜明地反映了这些思想。

罗马,你的皇帝们早已撇弃你,

希腊人眼里,你的荣誉和名声也已荡然无存……

郁起的君士坦丁堡,现在堪称是新生罗马,

而古罗马,你道德和墙宇的崩毁,成了宿命。

诗人用一个古老的回文结束了对句(distichs)的第一部分:“罗马,爱神将撇你而去”(Roma tibi subitomotibus ibit amor)。罗马禀受光环的身体,将离开她物质的身体,或者按照后期的一位法学家的表述,它将“从现在死亡的自然身体上迁转到另外一个自然身体”。因此,罗马就这样从一个化身变迁到另一个化身,首先漫游到君士坦丁堡,接着抵达第三罗马莫斯科,而且她还到过亚琛,查理大帝在该地建了一座拉特兰(Lateran)教堂,显然意在建立未来罗马(Roma Futura)。

 

所有这些说法似乎更适于耶路撒冷,纵使超验的耶路撒冷意味着无时间的永恒,而非时间之内的延续。基督最初的城,耶路撒冷的物质存在,已经被提多摧毁;哈德良在大卫城遗址上新建的埃利亚山城(Aelia Capitolina),缺少了形而上学的因素(metaphysis)。不过,只要是在新圣堂的祝圣庆日,“禀受光环的耶路撒冷”是可以随时降临尘世的,那时永恒的光辉便沐洒在任一无足轻重的城镇甚或乡村的教会之上。

 

拜占庭皇帝的光环在基督教时代还指涉“τη'χη”即“皇帝的守护神”(genius imperatoris),但到了后来,它主要指涉那被认为与基督一样是永恒的、受尊崇的和神圣的帝权本身,不管头戴王冠的个体是否具有受人尊崇或神圣的特质。这表明,永恒权力的持有者和执行者是来自上帝的,这种身份使皇帝成为某种“原型”的化身,这一“原型”是神圣而不朽的,因此其化身的个人特性或性别如何并不重要。例如,艾琳女皇(Empress Irene)代其子君士坦丁六世统治帝国期间(790—802),在官方文件中就被称作“皇帝”而非“女皇”——Ει'ρη'νηπιστο`sβασιλευ's(和平使皇帝得以信赖)。

 

梅斯的阿马拉(Amalar ofMetz)在致虔敬者路易皇帝的欢呼中,对皇帝本人永恒原型作了明确的区分。他祝愿“神圣的路易”长寿,而祝愿加洛林王朝皇帝这位“新大卫”的化身万岁:

神圣的路易长寿!(Divo Hludovico vita!)

新大卫万岁!(Novo David perennitas!)

也就是说,路易“禀受光环”,并非“神圣”称号使然,而是由于大卫这位虔敬的以色列王身上所具有的永恒性(perennitas),加洛林帝国的理念“大卫的帝国”(Regnum Davidicum),也是以他为巅峰并彪炳于世的。

 

或许是为了同拜占庭皇帝分庭抗礼,教皇格里高七世宣称,历代教皇的“光环”一直“来自神圣职位”(ex dignitate officii)

 

彼得·达米安(Peter Damiani)直截了当地把神圣出于职位的确切含义描述为:“因在世的功德而成圣(be holy)是一回事,因职务的地位而称圣(be called holy)是另一回事。”

 

中世纪时常出现在无名无姓的主教、神父或助祭身上,作为教会品级象征的方形头光或“完德头光”(nimbus perfectionis),是不是指涉的正是那神圣职位本身或威严的完善性和永恒性,而可以不考虑头光的禀受者是谁。

 

被误认为是约翰·克里索斯顿(金口约翰)的布道中,穿插过这样一则小故事,如果我们想要说明早期中世纪背景下国王两个身体这个一般性问题,恐怕很难找到比这个小故事要更贴切生动的了。它便是棕枝主日布道,那位佚名布道者恰如其分地讨论了当日把救世主领入耶路撒冷城的小驴驹,在拯救摄理中扮演的重要角色。教父们的著述对这一忠诚的造物并未少提他们一,般认为,这弥赛亚动物(animal messianum)最后被归还了它从前的主人;棕枝主日布道者在谈及小驴驹时,也并未标新立异。

的确(他说),这头动物在进入犹太人的耶路撒冷后,又被归还给了它的主人;但关于这动物的预言仍在犹太人中间流传。因为基督需要的,并非这头动物的可见的性质,而是其可理解的性质,并非它的肉身,而是它的理念。因此,肉身返还,但理念留下了:caro remissaest,ratio autem retenta est。

换言之,小驴驹的“自然身体”,在完成实现《以赛亚书》(62∶10)和《撒迦利亚书》(9∶9)字面意义的预言任务后,便被送还了它原来的主人。因为,主已不再需要它可见的物质性身体。然而,驴子的弥赛亚永恒身体,它的理性(ratio)、理念或原型,以及它所表征的并助力去实现的预言景象——这些在救赎的过程中都是不可或缺的,不能同弥赛亚的形象割裂开来。因此,这个动物不朽的“政治身体”同弥赛亚一起留在了圣城。它禀受光环,由揽辔者的神圣之光所环绕。

 

“光环”总是以这样那样的方式表达了时间本性的变化。这意味着,禀受光环的个体,不管是个体之人还是个体地点,都分有了一个“时间”范畴,它不同于中世纪心志所理解的那个支配尘世自然生活的时间范畴。诚然,光环没有让它的禀受者进入无连续性的上帝之永恒(aeternitasDei)中,因为,在这种永恒中,没有过去、未来而只有永恒的现在。然而,光环还是改变了它的禀受者:从经院哲学的角度看,光环把人从“时间”(tempus)推向了“永世”(aevum),至少我们可以说,它把人推向了某种没有终点的时间连续体。禀受光环之人,他的位阶(ordo)“决不会死”。此外,“光环”还揭示出,它的个体禀受者代表的是更为一般性的“原型”,代表了尘世变幻无常的时间中的某种永恒性。而且,与个体禀受者联为一体的某种意象或力量,它们真正的归宿是中世纪后来称作“永世”的无尽连续体。既然“永世”是理念(logoi)或原型的栖居地,是亚历山大派所解释的基督教哲学当中“天使们”的栖居地,我们就不难理解,都铎王朝法学家所谈的国王的“政治身体”,最后何以会与“神圣的精灵和天使们”如此相似;我们也就不难理解,诺曼佚名著者笔下的王者基督,何以被赋予了中保这样的高等级特质,成为依自然为人、借恩典为神的王者。

wagang狮子

女性资料——西欧中世纪女性医者

在中世纪,女性没有被排除在医学之外。在意大利的萨勒诺大学,女性可以学习和实践医学,特别是产科和妇科,如12世纪萨勒诺的医生特图拉(Trotula,又 被 称 为Trola of Salern),据说她留下三部关于女性的医学著作:《关于女性的状况》《关于女性的治疗》《关于女性的化妆品》,由之受人尊重。但随着13世纪学院派医学的衰落,女性医者消失,大多数大学都排斥女性从医,她们只被允许从事助产。因此自中世纪晚期直至近代晚期,女性医者一般没有受过大学教育,她们获得医学知识的途径是口口相传,特别是关于助产的知识,一般都是由母亲传给女儿,有时是姑母或姨母传给侄女或外甥女。

在中世纪,女性没有被排除在医学之外。在意大利的萨勒诺大学,女性可以学习和实践医学,特别是产科和妇科,如12世纪萨勒诺的医生特图拉(Trotula,又 被 称 为Trola of Salern),据说她留下三部关于女性的医学著作:《关于女性的状况》《关于女性的治疗》《关于女性的化妆品》,由之受人尊重。但随着13世纪学院派医学的衰落,女性医者消失,大多数大学都排斥女性从医,她们只被允许从事助产。因此自中世纪晚期直至近代晚期,女性医者一般没有受过大学教育,她们获得医学知识的途径是口口相传,特别是关于助产的知识,一般都是由母亲传给女儿,有时是姑母或姨母传给侄女或外甥女。

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