Psychological theories suggest that people tend to assume others share their own attitude position. Therefore, our alternative hypothesis is that participants who held more open views towards asylum policy would estimate a higher percentage of other psychologists...
Psychological theories suggest that people tend to assume others share their own attitude position. Therefore, our alternative hypothesis is that participants who held more open views towards asylum policy would estimate a higher percentage of other psychologists would endorse a more open policy too.
This is a directional hypothesis, and therefore the null hypothesis is that the participants who held open and closed views would not differ in their estimates of the percentage of otherstudents who would hold a particular view.
Why？ Some explanations for social projection
1) Cognitive Biases, focus of attention （认知偏差）
It is possible that our own knowledge, beliefs and feelings are so powerful, or 'salient' that they are represented very strongly in our memory. So for example, you may recall some particularly significant events in your life that affected your views about punishment. Since these events appear to you to be more prominent than others, you might believe that they would also affect other's views. As a result you might over-estimate the number of people sharing your view.
2) Rational Information Processing, attribution processes （逻辑信息处理，归属过程）
A second possibility is because you attribute your own behaviour largely to situational factors, you may 'rationally' assume that other people are affected by these same situational factors and will therefore react in the same way as yourself. When everyone makes this assumption the result is that everyone believes their own behaviour is the most normal or typical in the population and that it is therefore shared by a larger number of others than is in fact the case.
3) Motivational factors, vested interest （动力，兴趣因素）
Our perceptions and judgements may be affected by our motives, needs for positive self-evaluation and so on. For example, there is a tendency for people to under-estimate the proportion of other people who share their desirable behaviours but to over-estimate the proportion who share their undesirable behaviours. This makes us feel better about our desirable behaviour and less bad about our undesirable behaviour.
4) SelectiveExposure （选择性曝露）
A more 'social'process which might be responsible for social projection is that we may tend tospend most of our time with people who are similar to ourselves. As a result,we may come to believe that our own views are held more widely and generally than is in fact the case. In short, we do not encounter a representative sample of the opinions held across the population as a whole, and so cannot accurately estimate those opinions.